Modern Technology of Synthetic Resins & Their Applications (2nd Revised Edition) ( ) ( Best Seller ) ( ) ( ) ( )
Author NIIR Board of Consultants & Engineers ISBN 9788178330921
Code ENI71 Format Paperback
Price: Rs 1575   1575 US$ 43   43
Pages: 592 Published 2018
Publisher Asia Pacific Business Press Inc.
Usually Ships within 5 days

Modern Technology of Synthetic Resins & Their Applications
(Acetal, Acrylonitrile, Alkyd, Amino, Casein, Cashewnut Shell Liquid, Epoxy, Phenolic, Polyamide, Polyurethane, Rubber, Silicon, Polyvinyl Acetate, Shellac, Sucrose, Terpene Resins)
(2nd Revised Edition)

Synthetic resin is typically manufactured using a chemical polymerization process. This process then results in the creation of polymers that are more stable and homogeneous than naturally occurring resin. Since they are more stable and are cheaper, various forms of synthetic resin are used in a variety of products such as plastics, paints, varnishes, and textiles. There are various kinds of synthetic resins; acetal resins, amino resins, casein resins, epoxy resins, hydrocarbon resins, polyamide resins, etc. The classic variety is epoxy resin, manufactured through polymerization, used as a thermoset polymer for adhesives and composites. Epoxy resin is two times stronger than concrete, seamless and waterproof. Polyamide resin is another example of synthetic resins. Polyamide resins are products of polymerization of an amino acid or the condensation of a diamine with a dicarboxylic acid. They are used for fibers, bristles, bearings, gears, molded objects, coatings, and adhesives. The term nylon formerly referred specifically to synthetic polyamides as a class. Because of many applications in mechanical engineering, nylons are considered engineering plastics. Resins are valued for their chemical properties and associated uses, such as the production of varnishes, adhesives, lacquers, paints, rubber and pharmaceutical uses. The applications of synthetic resins are seen in some important industries like paint industry, adhesive industry, the printing ink industry, the textile industry, the leather industry, the floor polish, paper, agricultural industry etc. As it can be seen that there is an enormous scope of application of resins hence it is one of the major field to venture. 

Synthetic Resins are materials with properties similar to natural plant resins. They are viscous liquids capable of hardening permanently. Chemically they are very different from resinous compounds secreted by plants. Synthetic resins are of several classes.

The growth of the synthetic resins market can be attributed to the high demand from the packaging sector due to favorable properties, including lightweight and ability to act as an excellent barrier, which allows for their usage in applications such as barrier packaging, shrink wraps, and pharmaceutical packaging.

The major contents of the book are properties, manufacturing process, formulae of synthetic resins and applications of synthetic resins, derivatives of resins, use of resins in polymer field, alkyd resin technology, epoxy resins, manufacture of polystyrene based ion-exchange, phenol formaldehyde reactions, polycarbonates resins, polyester coating compositions, synthetic rubbers, modification with synthetic resins, water-soluble polymers, cross-linking of water-soluble coatings etc. This book also contains the list of manufacturers and dealers of raw materials, list of Chemical Plant, Photographs of Machinery with Suppliers Contact Details, Sample Plant Layout and Process Flow Chart.

The book will be very useful for new entrepreneurs, manufacturers of synthetic resins who can easily extract the relevant formulation and manufacturing process from the book. 

1.     Acetal Resins                                                                  

        Properties of Formaldehyde and Trioxane

        Preparation of Polymers

        New Polymers of Formaldehyde

        Polymerization of Trioxane

        Higher Aldehydes

        Other Aldehydes

        Properties of Aldehyde Polymers

        Polymers of Other Aldehydes

        Processing of Formaldehyde Polymers

        Uses of Polymers of Formaldehyde


2.     Acrylic solution resins                                                  


        Backbone Monomers

        Thermoplastic Acrylics

        Thermosetting Acrylics

        Processing Industries

        Aqueous Solution Acrylics

        Non-Aqueous Dispersions (NAD)

        Machinery & Equipments


3.     Acrylonitrile Resins                                                        

        Manufacture of Acrylonitrile

        From Acetylene

        Acrylonitrile : styrene Copolymers

        Acrylonitrile : butadiene-styrene

        Uses and Economic Aspects


4.     Alkyd Resin Technology                                                  

        The Nature of Alkyd Resins

        Raw Materials

        Modifiers for Alkyd Resins

        Formulation of Alkyd Resins

        Formula Development

        Calculation of Alkyd Formulations

        Typical Formulations

        Manufacture of Alkyd Resins



        Fatty Acid Process


        Raw Materials Handling

        Alkyd Manufacturing Plant

        Corrective Measures During Processing

        Applications of Alkyd Resins


5.     AMINO RESINS                                                                   

        Formation of Amino Resins

        Urea Formaldehyde Resins

        Melamine Formaldehyde Resins

        Other Amino Resins

        Production of Amino Resins

        Uses of Amino Resins

        Machinery And Equipments

        Economics of the Melamine-Formaldehyde

        Resin/Urea-formaldehyde resin


6.     Bhilawan Nut Shell Liquid Resins


7.     Casein Resins                                                                   



        Casein Adhesves for Bonding Paper

        Casein Adhesive for a Binding Dissimilar Materials

        Lime-Free Glue Formulations

        Methods of Application


8.     Cashewnut Shell Liquid Resins                                        

        Chemistry of Cashew nut shell Liquid

        Utilisation of Cashewnut Shell Liquid

        Chemically Modified Cardanol Polymer


9.     Epoxy Resins                                                                    


        Epoxy Resin Manufacture and Characterization

        Curing Agents For Epoxy Resins

        Principles in Formulating with Epoxy Resins

        Solventless coating for application by heated two

        componentair less spray equipment

        Water Dispersible Epoxy Coatings

        Epoxy Baking Enamels

        Water-Dispersible Epoxy Resin Coatings

        for Electrodeposition

        Epoxy Aqueuos powder Suspensions (APS)


10.   Furan Resins


11.   Hydrocarbon Resins                                                        

        Petroleum Resins

        Terpene Resins

        Resins from Pure Monomers


12.   Ion-Exchange Resins                                                        

        Theory and Mechanism

        Types of Ion-Exchange Resins

        Types of Ion-Exchange Resins




        Manufacture of Polystyrene Based Ion-Exchange

        Resins Polymerisation

        Alternative Method of Synthesis of anIon-Exchange Resin

        Process of Manufacture

        Methods of Analysis

        Determination of Physcial Properties:

        Chemical Properties


13.   Indene-Coumarone Resins                                               

        Raw Material and Source

        Method of Preparation

        Mechanism of Polymerization

        Physical Chemical Properties and Type

        Hydrogenated Resins


        Application in Adhesives

        Coumarone-indene Resin Adhesives

        Health and Hygiene Factors

        Test Methods

        Economics for Coumarone-indene Resin Plant


14.   Phenolic Resins                                                                

        Raw Materials

        Phenol Formaldehyde Reactions


        Modified Phenolic Resins

        Baking Phenolics

        Dispersion Resins

        Novolak Resins


        Fillers for Phenolic Moulding Powders

        Thermal  degradation

        Modified and Thermal - Resistance Resins

        Oil Soluble Phenolic Resin

        Heat and Sound Insulation Materials

        Foundry Resins


15.   Bisphenol-Furfural Resin 


16.   Para-toluene sulfonamide resins      


17.   Polycarbonates Resins                                                    


        Methods of Manufacture

18.   Polyamide Resins                                                             


        Methods of Manufacture


19.   Polymide Resins                                                               

        Polymide Adhesives

        Adhesive and Bonding Technology


20.   Polyurethane Resins                                                        

        Raw Materials

        Hazards of Isocyanates

        Classification of Polyurethanes


21.   Polyvinyl Alcohol Resins                                               


        Chemical Nature

        Physical Properties


        Commercial uses : Compounding and Formulating

        Commercial uses : Processing Aids


        Preparation Process


        Economics for Polyvinyl alcohol


22.   Polyvinyl Acetate solid Resins                                       


        Vinyl Acetate Copolymers

        Polyvinyl Acetate Emulsions


        Laboratory Preparation of Polyvinyl Acetate

        Commercial Preparation

        Special Formulation Acetate Adhesive

        As Adhesives In the Building Industry

        Economics for Polyvinyl acetate


23.   Rubber Resins                                                                   


        Natural Rubber

        Synthetic Rubbers

        Chlorinated Rubber Resins

        Cyclized Rubber Resins

        Application And Formulations

        High Styrene-Butadiene Rubber Resins

        Styrene-Butadiene Rubber Adhesives

        Chlorinated Biphenyls

        Chlorinated Paraffins

        Synthetic Rubber Resin Latexes

        Nitrile rubber Adhesives

        Butyl Rubber And Polysobutylene Adhesives

        Processing for Butyl Polymers

        Carboxylic Resin Polymers in Adhesives

        Carboxylic elastoners in PSA

        Carboxylic Functional Neoprenes as Contace Adhesives


24.   Silicone Resins                                                                 

        Preparation of Silocones

        Silicone Resins

        Preparation and Formulation of Silicone-Resin

        based Coatings

        Application Guides

        Other Silicone Resin Application

        Other Silicones for Surface Coatings


25.   Shellac Resins                                                                 

        Commercial Forms of Lac

        Chemical Composition

        Modification with Synthetic Resins


26.   Sucrose Resins                                                                 


        Sucrose modified resins

        Sucrose acetate isobutyrate (SAIB)


27.   Rosin & Rosin Derivatives                                               

        Composition, Reaction and Derivatives, Isomerization


        Oxidation, Photosensitized Oxidation


        Hydrogenless Hydrogenation

        Hydrocaraking of Rosin

        Phenolic Modification

        Salt Formation



        Preparations, Typical Uses

        Chemical and Physical Properties of Amine D Acetate


        Hydroxymethylation and Hydroxylation




28.   Terpene Resins                                                                  

        Hot Melt Adhesives (HMA) and coatings

        Terpene-phenolic Resin (TPR)


29.   Water-soluble polymers                                                 


        Applications of Starches

        The textile industry

        Adhesive Applications

        Liquid Adhesives

        Miscellaneous Uses

        Properties of Cellulose Ethers

        Emulsion Polymerization

30.   Alkyl and Hydroxyalkyl cellulose          

        Cellulosic Ethers, General Information


        Powder and Film properties

        Physical and chemiclal properties

        Commercial Uses : Compounding and Formulating

        Commercial Uses


31.   Water-Reducible Resins                                                   

        Water Soluble Polymers

        Cross-Linking of Water-Soluble Coatings

        Additives For Coatings, Pigments

        Formulation of water-soluble coatings

        Trouble Shooting with water-soluble polymers


32.  Photographs of Machinery with Suppliers
      Contact Details                                              



        Thermic Fluid Heating System

        Octagonal Blender

        Industrial Storage Vessels

        Ribbon Blender

        Filter Press

        Filter Tank

        Moulding Machine

        Ball Mill



        Roller Mill

        Conveyor Dryer

        Resin Plant

        Blender Machine

        Air Compressor

        Heat Exchanger

        Storage Tank


33.  Sample Plant Layout and Process Flow Chart   

        Alkyd Resin Manufacturing

        Resin Production Equipment

        Process Flow Chart for Toner Resins

        Polyester Resin Production

Factory Layout for production of Alkyd Resin Production Plant






In the plastics industry epoxy resins are classified as thermosetting resins, and they are used in the paint industry as convertible coatings. Epoxy resins are cured and converted to a thermoset state by chemical reaction between the resin and a curing agent. Depending on the curing agent this reaction can take place; either at elevated or at room temperatures. The cured resins are not soluble in solvents and cannot be melted by heating. This property is in direct contrast to thermoplastic products, such PVC, or polystyrene or non-convertible coatings, such as chlorinated rubber, acrylic or nitrocellulose lacquers which remain soluble in solvents and can be remelted by heating.

Epoxy resins became commerecially available in Australia in the early 1950s and since that time have become firmly established in many industries. Most commonly used types are based on epichlorhydrin and diphenylol propane and are available in range of molecular weights. The low molecular weight resins are liquid and the high molecular weight resins are solid.

What are the main properties of the epoxy-resin-based systems that influence the choice of epoxy resins from a wide range of plastics available at present? The important properties are listed below.

  1. The chemical structure of epoxy resins gives them high chemical resistance against a wide range of severe corrosive conditions. These properties are derived from the aromatic nature of the backbone and good chemical stability of the phenolic ether linkage.
  2. Epoxy resins have good adhesion to a wide range of materials, including metals, wood, concrete, glass, ceramic and many plastics. This is due to the presence of polar groups in the cured resin.
  3. Low shrinkage during curing results in good dimensional accuracy in construction of structural items and enables manufacture of high strength adhesives with a glue line of low residual stress.
  4. Ease of fabrication means that complicated shapes can be reproduced easily using liquid epoxy resins systems which can be cured at room temperatures.
  5. Good physical properties such as toughness, flexibility and abrasion resistance can be obtained.
  6. Although there are temperature limitations, epoxy resins are generally superior to almost all thermoplastics in elevated temperature performance.

One of the main users of epoxy resins is the paint industry, which produces special types of surface coatings which will be discussed in further detail below. The electrical industry was one of the first industries where epoxy resins became established during the early stages of commercial production. Epoxy resins are convenient to use in solvent-free liquid form which sets into a hard infusible solid after the addition of curing agent. They are used extensively, for example for potting, embedding or encapsulation of electrical components, for cable joining to make water proof joints, for manufacture of Telecom terminal pillars.

Another industry to recognize the value of liquid epoxy resins was the engineering industry. Low shrinkage and good dimensional stability in service are important properties utilized for manufacture of foundry patterns, vacuum forming moulds, press tools for prototype or short runs, drilling jigs, and checking fixtures. Adhesives are used in many applications in place of soldering, bolts or rivets, particularly in small parts assembly and in aircraft construction. Fibreglass reinforced plastics are manufactured from epoxy resins for applications where chemical resistance and good physical strength properties are the main requirements, for example piping and storage vessels in the chemical industry. In the civil engineering industry the use of epoxy resins has also become established as a standard practice. The rapid cure of epoxy adhesives as compared with cement and good adhesion to new and old concrete enables more rapid construction and repair of concrete structures.


By far the most important class of epoxy resins used at present on a large scale commercially is that based upon the reaction between diphenylol propane and epichlorhydrin in the presence of alkali. The basic reactions are shown below.


The basic reaction is formation under alkaline conditions of a chlorhydrin ether of DPP (b) followed by dehydrochlorination of the chlorhydrin group by alkali to form an epoxy group, thus giving the diglycidyl ether of DPP (c). An excess of ECH will favour a high proportion of the simple diglycidyl ether of DPP; higher DPP ratios will give higher molecular weight polymers. Commercial grades of resin can be represented by the following formula:

The pure diglycidyl ether of DPP with n=0 is a crystalline solid. The commercial low viscoity liquid resins are rich in this compound and the average n is approximately 0.2. Viscosity can be further reduced by addition of monoepoxide compounds such as aliphatic glycidyl ethers. In low melting point solid resins average n is approximately 2. The common commercial high molecular weight resins have average n up to 13. There are also very high molecular weight resins with molecular weights up to 200 000. These resins have mainly hydroxy groups and practically no epoxy groups and are used as thermoplastic resins for non-convertible coatings.

The commercial epoxy resins are characterized by specifying their main properties, as in sections 2.1 to 2.3.

Epoxide Group Content (EGC)

This is at present expressed as millimoles of epoxide groups per 1 kg of resin (m mol/kg). Previously this was expressed as Epoxy Molar Mass (EMM) in which case the unit is grams per mole of epoxide (g/mol). Conversion to EGC from EMM can be done by the following formula:

Hydroxyl Content

This is expressed as millimoles of hydroxyl groups per 1 kg of resin (m mol/kg). For esterification purposes, one epoxy group is equal to two hydroxyl groups and this must be taken into account when calculating esterification equivalents.


Commonly used metric viscosity unit is the Pascal second (Pa s), which has replaced the Poise unit (1 Poise = 0.1 Pa s).

Viscosity is normally measured at 250C on liquid low viscosity resins without dilution. A 70 per cent solution is used for high viscosity liquid resins and a 40 per cent solution is commonly used for solid resins in solvents such as glycol ethers. Properties of a typical range of epoxy resins are shown in table 1.

Selection of the resin grade depends on the application. Low molecular weight resins are rich in epoxy groups and are used for applications where the cross-linking reaction is through epoxy groups. In high molecular weight resins, hydroxy groups are predominant, and reactions involving both hydroxy and epoxy groups are selected for further polymerization and cross-linking.


The reaction for cross-linking epoxies resins can be between epoxy resin molecules with the aid of a catalyst. However, a majority of uses of epoxy resins employ a reactive hardener (such as amines, acid anhydrides, phenolic resins) which combines with epoxy or hydroxy groups in the resin, to form a thermoset product.

Table 1 : Properties of a typical range of epoxy resins

Typical viscosity range pa. s

 Resin GradeApp. nApp. EMM g/molApp. EGC m mol /kg.Solids % Mass
1. Low viscosity liquid resins modified with monoepoxide diluents 0.2 200 5000 0.6-1.8 100
2. Low viscosity basic resins 0.2 200 5000 0.8-16.0 100
3. High viscosity resins 0.5 250 4000 0.4-1.0 70
4. Solid resins:          
  Durrans Melting point approx. 700C 2 500 2000 0.1-0.2 40
  Durrans Melting point approx. 1000C 4 900 1100 0.5-1.0 40
  Durrans Melting point approx. 1300C 9 1700 600 2.0-3.5 40
  Durrans Melting point approx.1500C 13 2700 370 4.0-12.0 40

The most commonly used curing agents for room temperature cured systems are polyfunctional amines and polymide resins. As shown below the active hydrogen atoms of primary and secondary amine groups react with epoxy groups.

A primary monoamine has a functionality of 2 for epoxy reactions, whilst the epoxy group has a functionality of 1. Thus a diepoxide reacted with a monoamine would give a linear polymer. Consequently, the useful curing agents are polyamines, such as:

  Functionality Molar Mass
Ethylene diamine (EDA) 4 60
Diethylene triamine (DET) 5 103
Trietylene tetramine (TETA) 6 146

The reaction mechanism suggests that the curing agent should be used in stoichiometric proportions. For example resin having an EMM of 190 the amount of DET would be:

This is normally expressed as parts by mass of curing agent for 100 grams of resin (phr), that is 11 phr of DET. The use of incorrect proportions can lead to water sensitivity and poor physical properties if an excessive amount of amine is used. Quite small excess amine will adversely affect the water sensitivity. Low curing agent content would result in poor solvent-resistant and poor physical properties. With solvent-free systems this can be conveniently checked by determining Deflection Temperature (DT), that is, the temperature at which a standard sample begins to distort under load when determined by a standard method. The optimum curing agent ratio will show a peak in the DT curve plotted from a range of determinations using different curing agent proportions.

In practice, the use of free low molecular weight aliphatic amines is undesirable because of problems caused by objectionable volatility of such amines from an industrial hygiene point of view. This volatility can be eliminated by prereacting the amine with part of the epoxy resin forming a so-called amine adduct. Amine adducts are usually prepared by mixing one molecule of epoxy resin with two molecules of polymine.

Using solid epoxy resins, so-called 'isolated adducts' are prepared by reacting in solution and then distilling the excess amine and solvent. Isolated adduct is a solid, usually marketed in powder form. If solvent and the excess amine are not removed, the amine adduct is described as an 'in situ adduct'. The main advantages of adducts compared with straight amines are :

  1. reduced volatility,
  2. reduced toxicity,
  3. reduced blushing tendency during cure of films, and
  4. smaller mixing ratio with resins reduces chances of error.

Cycloaliphatic amines form another group of curing agents that are less volatile than linear aliphatic amines. They are slower in curing and require additions of accelerators, or must be cured at elevated temperture.

Another method for eliminating the problems associated with the use of free amines is the use of polyamide resins. These are produced from dimeric fatty acids and amine, and are available in several grades of different molecular weights. Polyamide resins react with epoxy resins through amine groups present in the resin. Because they have higher molecular weight than straight amines, their mixing proportions are much higher. The mixing ratio can be varied within comparatively wide limits depending on the properties desired in the end product. Higher proportions of polyamide resin give increased flexibility; a lower ratio imparts best water resistance, but caution should be exercised in adjusting the proportions to ensure that achievement in one desired property does not make too much sacrifice in another requirement. The main advantages and disadvantages of polyamide resins compared with amine or amine adduct systems are :

  1. volatility: non-volatile,
  2. mixing ratio with eposy resin: lower with polyamide resin,
  3. pot life: longer with polyamide resin,
  4. flexibility: lower with polyamide resin,
  5. hardness: lower with polyamide resin,
  6. water resistance: higher with polyamide resin, and
  7. chemical resistance: lower with polyamide resin.

Ketimines are used as curing agents for applications where longer pot life is required. Ketimines are described as latent curing agents, as they do not react with epoxy resins until free amine is released by contact with moisture in the air during and after application. The film thickness of these systems should not exceed 250 um to allow moisture penetration during curing.

One disadvantage with the curing agents described above is that the rate of reaction becomes too slow at lower temperatures. Below 150C ambient temperature, adequate cure is not obtained with most of the conventional curing agnets. However, several special curing agents are now available which cure at much lower temperatures. Some of these are based on aromatic amines such as 4, 4-diaminodiphenyl methane (DDM) containing modifiers and accelerators. These curing agents when mixed with liquid epoxy resins can be cured at 50 C and even below :


Two-pack Systems

Two-pack epoxy systems consist of a number of components which are selected to achieve desirable properties in the end product. A brief description of the components that may be used is given below.

Epoxy resins. Low molecular weight solid resins are used in solvent-based paints. Liquid resins are used in solventless systems.

Curing agents

  1. Amine and amine adduct-for best chemical resistance.
  2. Polyamide- for best flexibility and water resistance.
  3. Ketimines-for longer pot life in high solids systems.
  4. Modified aromatic amines-for low temperature cure.

Accelerators. Accelerators are often used in polymide cured solventless systems. Phenols, tertiary amines and triphenyl phosphate are typical accelerators.

Flexibilizers. Flexibilizers are often used with epoxy resins to increase flexibility and impact resistance. Typical products are polyamide and polysulfide resins. As mentioned previously, polyamides act also as curing agents. Other flexibilizers include ester plasticizers, epoxidised oils, and coal tar.

Reactive diluents. Monoepoxide diluents, such as n-butyl glycidyl ether, can be used in small proportions to reduce the viscosity of liquid epoxy resins in order to improve handling properties. As these diluents are of low molecular weight and are mono-fuctional, they reduce the physical strength and chemical resistance of the cured systems.

Pigments and fillers. Epoxy surface coatings use conventional pigments and extenders provided they meet chemical resistance requirements. Epoxy-resin-based adhesives and flooring compounds often use coarser fillers such as sand.

Thixotropic additives. Conventional types of thixotropic additives are used in epoxy systems and include synthetic silica (Aerosil*, Santocel'*), hydrogenated castor oil derivatives (Thixcin*) and Bentones.*

Solvents. Solubility of resins varies with their molecular weight. Liquid resins are soluble in hydrocarbons whilst solid resins are soluble in mixtures of aromatic hydrocarbons with alcohols, ketones and glycol ethers.

Two-pack epoxy systmes can be broadly classified into five groups, 1 to 5.

Solvent-based coatings

These systems are based on a solid epoxy resin solution, either clear or pigmented to give a desired colour. The resin is cured by addition of an amine adduct or polyamide.

Two-pack solvent-based paints have a long pot life (at least 6 hours) and can be applied by conventional methods, such as brushing or spraying. The normal paint film thickness per coat is about 50 pm. They have excellent adhesion to steel, concrete, asbestors cement and most other surfaces. They are tough and resistant to a wide range of chemicals and solvents. The chemical resistance of amine-adduct-cured systems is superior to the polyamide-cured formulations. Polyamide curing agents give a longer pot life, great flexibility, and superior water resistance. The choice between these two curing agents depends on the end use requirements.

Solventless and High Solids Coatings

High labour costs in applying the solvent-based paints to obtain high film thickness led to the development of solvent-free systems. Fox instance, it would be necessary to apply five to eight coats of conventional solvent based paint to obtain a minimum 250 to 375 pm film thickness required for good durability under immersion conditions. The use of solvent-free systems reduces labour cost, eliminates solvent hazards and simplifies ventilation problems in confined spaces.

Liquid epoxy resins are used in the manufacture of these coatings together with special types of low viscosity curing agents. The early problems of extremely short pot life of solvent-free systems have been overcome by development of latent curing agents or new specialized equipment for paint application.

Latent curing agents are based on ketimines. With this type of coating it is possible to apply by brush or spray up to 250pm film thickness in a single coat on vertical surfaces without sagging. Although these coatings are often described as solventless, they contain small amounts of solvents, and should be more accurately described as high solids coatings. They usually contain over 90 per cent of film forming material.

Another method of overcoming application difficulties with solvent-free systems and to obtain better results is by using specialized equipment. Two-pack heated airless spray rigs (capable of accurately metering the components and of controlling their temperature at suitable levels) are now available. The temperature drop immediately after application of preheated paint gives a setting-up effect similar to that obtained by solvent loss with conventional paints. Solventless paints applied by other methods usually remain liquid for 2 to 4 hours until gelation takes place.

The chemical resistancce and corrosion resistance of solventless coatings is very similar to that of the two pack solvent based paints. They are, however, less flexible and show a more pronounced tendency to yellow and lose gloss on exterior exposure. Some of the solvent-free types are only available in darker shades because of the colour of the modified aromatic amine used to obtain good cure at low temperatures.

Tar Epoxy Coatings

Two-pack epoxy paints can be modified with suitable grades of tar to produce tar epoxy coatings. The addition of a comparatively low cost tar to an epoxy resin system improves water resistance, but some loss in chemical and solvent resistance occurs. The colour of tar epoxy paints is generally black; tars of very light colour have also become available to enable formulation of paints in a fairly wide range of colours for special applications where black is not acceptable.

The tar epoxy paints are formulated in the same manner as the unmodified two-pack epoxy paints and are available as conventional solvent-based systems or in high solids or solventless types. They can be applied by brushing, roller coating, or spraying, and they are particularly suitable for airless spray. The film thickness per coat can range from 50 to 375 pm, depending on the type of formulation.

Flooring Compounds

Concrete floors are often a cause of concern in industrial plants as conventional coatings are not always resistant to heavy wear or damage through the spillage of corrosive materials. For this applications, solventless liquid epoxy resin blends with a suitable aggregate can be used at a film thickness ranging from 3 to 6 mm applied in one operation. These compounds may be used in the construction of new floors or in resurfacing of old ones, and they may be laid on concrete, metal or wood substrates.

Several types of flooring compounds are available. One type consists of a compound heavily filled with sand or other aggregate, and it is applied by trowelling. Another method of application uses low viscosity compositions, which are poured directly onto the substrate and smoothed out to form a continuous level coating. Additional aggregate is then spread on the surface before the coating has set and is trowelled into the film to give a non-skid surface. A decorative appearance can be obtained by the use of conventional pigments. This type of flooring is used in chemical plants, dairies, breweries and other industries where a combination of chemical resistance, hard wearing surface, and skid resistant properties is required.

Fibreglass Laminates

Fibreglass-reinforced epoxies have outstanding physical properties and are well established in electrical applications and in aircraft and rocket construction. In corrosion protection, epoxy laminates for cladding and structural uses are normally based on room temperature cured systems manufactured by hand lay-up techniques. In the production of chemically resistant piping and tank construction, filament winding techniques have been established and are extensively used overseas.

Cladding with fibreglass-reinforced epoxies gives a chemically resistant coating that can be built up to higher film thickness than conventional coatings with superior physical strength properties, particularly in resistance to impact. It is a most satisfactory method for the lining and repair of concrete and steel tanks, and for wrapping pipes for protection and repair of leaks, without necessitating a shutdown.

Examples of Formulations (parts by mass)


Resin base :  
Epikote* 1001 X 75 43.0
Flow control agent 2.3
Rutile titanium dioxide 33.4
Solvent blend 21.3


Hardener amine adduct:  
E.D.A. 1.5
n-butanol 6.0
Xylene 6.0
Epikote* 1001 X 75a 11.5
Slovent blend:  
MEK 25
Oxitol* 15
Toluene 35


Resin base :  
Epikote*215a 100.0
Rutile titanium dioxide 23.0
Barytes 24.0
Diatomaceous earth 9.0
Thickening agent 1.8
Cresylic acid solution 6.0
50 per cent in alcohol  
Ketimine Curing Agent 45


Tar base:  
Liquid tar 33.0
Polymid 75b 14.3
Accelerator DMP30 1.4
Thickening agent 2.4
Talc TX 22.4
Resin base:  
Epikote 816a 26.5


Resin base:  
Epikote*828a 65.35
Synthetic iron oxide 16.03
Asbestine 20 pm 10.79
Microtalc 5.35
Thickening agent 1.49
Silicone resin R281 0.99
Hardener (aromatic amine):  
Epikure 153 41
Equivalent Products      
Epikote 828 Aealdite GY 250 DER 331
  815 MY 752 DER 334
  Dx 215 LC 191 DER 324
  1001 6071 DER 661
  (Shell) (Ciba-Geigy) (Dow)

Single-pack Epoxy Maintenance Paints

Epoxy Esters

The chemical structre of an epoxy resin molecule clearly shows its polyol nature. The secondary hydroxyl groups are spaced along the chain and each epoxy group is equivalent to two hydroxyl groups for the purposes of esterification.

The epoxy esters are generally manufactured from medium molecular weight epoxy resins with an EGC of approximately 1100, although lower and higher molecular weight resins are used. The properties of epoxy esters can be varied according to the degree of esterification with vegetable oil fatty acids, and the type of fatty acid used. Typical fatty acids are linseed, D.C.O., soya and tall oil. Short oil ester (30 to 50 per cent oil) are used for baking finishes and the medium and long oil esters are used for manufacture of air dry maintenance paints.

Epoxy ester maintenance coatings are used where comparatively mild corrosive conditions are encountered. They are similar to alkyd paints in drying properties, but show greater resistance to saponification and improved adhesion. They are widely used for interior and exterior protection of structural steel and exterior coatings for storage tanks in refineries and chemical plants.

Single-pack Thermoplastic Epoxy Systems

For some specialized applications, single-pack epoxy coatings are available, that differ from other types in that they are thermoplastic, non-convertible coatings. They harden purely by solvent evaporation and consist of epoxy resin of very high molecular weight dissolved in a suitable solvent.

Thermoplastic epoxies are of very high viscosity and are not as suitable for manufacture of finishing coats as the thermosetting epoxies. They are used mainly for the manufacture of highly pigmented primers, and they are particularly suitable as binders for zinc rich primers, as they give good resistance to settling on storage. The thermoplastic epoxies retain the high chemical resistance and the adhesion typical of epoxies, and have the advantage of being a one-pack formulation (similar to conventional paints). Their solvent resistance is limited, but the overcoating of primers on this resin is possible with practically all types of paints without danger of bleeding or lifting. Some softening of the paint film at elevated temperatures can be expected with thermoplastic epoxies and this should be kept in mind when considering practical applications.

Epoxy Industrial Baking Finishes

Solid epoxy resins of high molecular weight are used for manufacture of baking systems which are well known in the industrial finishing field. They are used for drum and tank linings, can coatings, domestic appliance finishes, and automotive primers.

Epoxy short oil esters are used in a similar way to alkyd resins in baking finishes, in applications when higher chemical resistance is required. High molecular weight resins with EGC lower than 600 are used for cross-linking through hydroxyl and epoxy groups using urea formaldehyde or phenol formaldehyde resins. These systems show extremely high toughness and are widely used for drum and can linings. They are baked at 2000C for 10 to 20 minutes to achieve full cure.

A new development in industrial coatings is epoxy powder coatings. The powders are manufactured by dispersing pigments and flow control additives and curing agent in a molten epoxy resin. On cooling, the blend solidifies to a hard, brittle mass, which is crushed and ground into a powder of the required particle size. Typical curing agents used for this application are based on dicyandiamide; they are solid and not reactive at room temperature. Another type of powder coating is based on a combination of epoxy and polyster resins. Powder coatings require baking at 1700 to 200 0C to form a thermoset finish.

The powders can be applied to articles by dipping the preheated object into a bath of the powder which is fluidized (by blowing air through a specially designed porous bottom of the bath) or by spraying the powder by flock gun. The most convenient method for application of powders is electrostatic spraying onto cold or preheated objects. The epoxy powder coatings have two main advantages compared with solvent-based systems:

  1. Absence of solvents reduces health and safety hazards.
  2. For special heavy duty applications, a high film thickness can be obtained in one application without danger of solvent retention or film porosity.

They are used for applications where severe corrosion conditions are encountered or where good electrical properties are important. They are becoming established in decorative coatings for application on articles of complicated shapes, such as tubular steel furniture and expanded metal articles, because of their toughness. Another use is for protection of pipelines for natural gas.

Many recent developments in industrial coatings are water-based systems. Most of the automotive primers are now applied by electrodeposition from a water dispersion of organic binder, which is negatively charged for anodic electrodeposition (or positively charged for cathodic electrodeposition). Suitably modified epoxy esters are used for both anodic and cathodic electrodeposition automotive primers.





NIIR PROJECT CONSULTANCY SERVICES (NPCS) is a reliable name in the industrial world for offering integrated technical consultancy services. NPCS is manned by engineers, planners, specialists, financial experts, economic analysts and design specialists with extensive experience in the related industries.

Our various services are: Detailed Project Report,  Business Plan for Manufacturing Plant, Start-up Ideas, Business Ideas for Entrepreneurs, Start up Business Opportunities, entrepreneurship projects, Successful Business Plan, Industry Trends, Market Research, Manufacturing Process, Machinery, Raw Materials, project report, Cost and Revenue, Pre-feasibility study for Profitable Manufacturing Business, Project Identification, Project Feasibility and Market Study, Identification of Profitable Industrial Project Opportunities, Business Opportunities, Investment Opportunities for Most Profitable Business in India, Manufacturing Business Ideas, Preparation of Project Profile, Pre-Investment and Pre-Feasibility Study, Market Research Study, Preparation of Techno-Economic Feasibility Report, Identification and Section of Plant, Process, Equipment, General Guidance, Startup Help, Technical and Commercial Counseling for setting up new industrial project and Most Profitable Small Scale Business.

NPCS also publishes varies process technology, technical, reference, self employment and startup books, directory, business and industry database, bankable detailed project report, market research report on various industries, small scale industry and profit making business. Besides being used by manufacturers, industrialists and entrepreneurs, our publications are also used by professionals including project engineers, information services bureau, consultants and project consultancy firms as one of the input in their research.

Our Detailed Project report aims at providing all the critical data required by any entrepreneur vying to venture into Project. While expanding a current business or while venturing into new business, entrepreneurs are often faced with the dilemma of zeroing in on a suitable product/line.


And before diversifying/venturing into any product, wish to study the following aspects of the identified product:

• Good Present/Future Demand
• Export-Import Market Potential
• Raw Material & Manpower Availability
• Project Costs and Payback Period

We at NPCS, through our reliable expertise in the project consultancy and market research field, Provides exhaustive information about the project, which satisfies all the above mentioned requirements and has high growth potential in the markets. And through our report we aim to help you make sound and informed business decision.


The report contains all the data which will help an entrepreneur find answers to questions like:

• Why I should invest in this project?
• What will drive the growth of the product?
• What are the costs involved?
• What will be the market potential?

The report first focuses on enhancing the basic knowledge of the entrepreneur about the main product, by elucidating details like product definition, its uses and applications, industry segmentation as well as an overall overview of the industry sector in India. The report then helps an entrepreneur identify the target customer group of its product. It further helps in making sound investment decision by listing and then elaborating on factors that will contribute to the growth of product consumption in India and also talks about the foreign trade of the product along with the list of top importing and top exporting countries. Report includes graphical representation and forecasts of key data discussed in the above mentioned segment. It further explicates the growth potential of the product.

The report includes other market data like key players in the Industry segment along with their contact information and recent developments. It includes crucial information like raw material requirements, list of machinery and manufacturing process for the plant. Core project financials like plant capacity, costs involved in setting up of project, working capital requirements, projected revenue and profit are further listed in the report.

Reasons for buying the report:

• This report helps you to identify a profitable project for investing or diversifying into by throwing light to crucial areas like industry size, demand of the product and reasons for investing in the product.

• This report provides vital information on the product like its definition, characteristics and segmentation.

• This report helps you market and place the product correctly by identifying the target customer group of the product.

• This report helps you understand the viability of the project by disclosing details like raw materials required, manufacturing process, project costs and snapshot of other project financials.

• The report provides forecasts of key parameters which helps to anticipate the industry performance and make sound business decision.


Our Approach:

• Our research reports broadly cover Indian markets, present analysis, outlook and forecast.

• The market forecasts are developed on the basis of secondary research and are cross-validated through interactions with the industry players. 

• We use reliable sources of information and databases.  And information from such sources is processed by us and included in the report.


Our Market Survey cum Detailed Techno Economic Feasibility Report Contains following information:



Ø  Introduction

·         Project Introduction

·         Project Objective and Strategy

·         Concise History of the Product

·         Properties

·         BIS (Bureau of Indian Standards) Provision & Specification

·         Uses & Applications


Ø  Market Study and Assessment

·         Current Indian Market Scenario

·         Present Market Demand and Supply

·         Estimated Future Market Demand and Forecast

·         Statistics of Import & Export

·         Names & Addresses of Existing Units (Present Players)

·         Market Opportunity


Ø  Raw Material

·         List of Raw Materials

·         Properties of Raw Materials

·         Prescribed Quality of Raw Materials

·         List of Suppliers and Manufacturers


Ø  Personnel (Manpower) Requirements

·         Requirement of Staff & Labor (Skilled and Unskilled) Managerial, Technical, Office Staff and Marketing Personnel


Ø  Plant and Machinery

·         List of Plant & Machinery

·         Miscellaneous Items

·         Appliances & Equipments

·         Laboratory Equipments & Accessories

·         Electrification

·         Electric Load & Water

·         Maintenance Cost

·         Sources of Plant & Machinery (Suppliers and Manufacturers)


Ø  Manufacturing Process and Formulations

·         Detailed Process of Manufacture with Formulation

·         Packaging Required

·         Process Flow Sheet Diagram


Ø  Infrastructure and Utilities

·         Project Location

·         Requirement of Land Area

·         Rates of the Land

·         Built Up Area

·         Construction Schedule

·         Plant Layout and Requirement of Utilities


Project at a Glance

Along with financial details as under:


  •     Assumptions for Profitability workings

  •    Plant Economics

  •    Production Schedule

  •    Land & Building

            Factory Land & Building

            Site Development Expenses

  •    Plant & Machinery

             Indigenous Machineries

            Other Machineries (Miscellaneous, Laboratory etc.)

  •    Other Fixed Assets

            Furniture & Fixtures

            Pre-operative and Preliminary Expenses

            Technical Knowhow

            Provision of Contingencies

  •   Working Capital Requirement Per Month

             Raw Material

            Packing Material

            Lab & ETP Chemical Cost

           Consumable Store

  •   Overheads Required Per Month And Per Annum

         Utilities & Overheads (Power, Water and Fuel Expenses etc.)

             Royalty and Other Charges

            Selling and Distribution Expenses

  •    Salary and Wages

  •    Turnover Per Annum

  •   Share Capital

            Equity Capital

            Preference Share Capital


  •    Annexure 1:: Cost of Project and Means of Finance

  •    Annexure 2::  Profitability and Net Cash Accruals


                Expenses/Cost of Products/Services/Items

                Gross Profit

                Financial Charges     

                Total Cost of Sales

                Net Profit After Taxes

                Net Cash Accruals

  •   Annexure 3 :: Assessment of Working Capital requirements

                Current Assets

                Gross Working. Capital

                Current Liabilities

                Net Working Capital

                Working Note for Calculation of Work-in-process

  •    Annexure 4 :: Sources and Disposition of Funds

  •    Annexure 5 :: Projected Balance Sheets

                ROI (Average of Fixed Assets)

                RONW (Average of Share Capital)

                ROI (Average of Total Assets)

  •    Annexure 6 :: Profitability ratios


                Earnings Per Share (EPS)


             Debt Equity Ratio

        Annexure 7   :: Break-Even Analysis

                Variable Cost & Expenses

                Semi-Var./Semi-Fixed Exp.

                Profit Volume Ratio (PVR)

                Fixed Expenses / Cost 


  •   Annexure 8 to 11:: Sensitivity Analysis-Price/Volume

            Resultant N.P.B.T

            Resultant D.S.C.R

   Resultant PV Ratio

   Resultant DER

  Resultant ROI

          Resultant BEP

  •    Annexure 12 :: Shareholding Pattern and Stake Status

        Equity Capital

        Preference Share Capital

  •   Annexure 13 :: Quantitative Details-Output/Sales/Stocks

        Determined Capacity P.A of Products/Services

        Achievable Efficiency/Yield % of Products/Services/Items 

        Net Usable Load/Capacity of Products/Services/Items   

       Expected Sales/ Revenue/ Income of Products/ Services/ Items   

  •    Annexure 14 :: Product wise domestic Sales Realisation

  •    Annexure 15 :: Total Raw Material Cost

  •    Annexure 16 :: Raw Material Cost per unit

  •    Annexure 17 :: Total Lab & ETP Chemical Cost

  •    Annexure 18  :: Consumables, Store etc.,

  •    Annexure 19  :: Packing Material Cost

  •    Annexure 20  :: Packing Material Cost Per Unit

  •    Annexure 21 :: Employees Expenses

  •    Annexure 22 :: Fuel Expenses

  •    Annexure 23 :: Power/Electricity Expenses

  •    Annexure 24 :: Royalty & Other Charges

  •    Annexure 25 :: Repairs & Maintenance Exp.

  •    Annexure 26 :: Other Mfg. Expenses

  •    Annexure 27 :: Administration Expenses

  •    Annexure 28 :: Selling Expenses

  •    Annexure 29 :: Depreciation Charges – as per Books (Total)

  •   Annexure 30   :: Depreciation Charges – as per Books (P & M)

  •   Annexure 31   :: Depreciation Charges - As per IT Act WDV (Total)

  •   Annexure 32   :: Depreciation Charges - As per IT Act WDV (P & M)

  •   Annexure 33   :: Interest and Repayment - Term Loans

  •   Annexure 34   :: Tax on Profits

  •   Annexure 35   ::Projected Pay-Back Period And IRR