Handbook on Modern Packaging Industries (2nd Revised Edition) ( ) ( Best Seller ) ( ) ( ) ( )
Author NIIR Board ISBN 9788178330860
Code ENI72 Format Paperback
Price: Rs 1675   1675 US$ 45   45
Pages: 848 Published 2010
Publisher Asia Pacific Business Press Inc.
Usually Ships within 5 days

Packaging is a means of ensuring the safe delivery of a product to the ultimate consumer in a sound condition at the minimal overall cost. Packaging not only differentiates one brand from another but also, at times, gives a preview of the product being sold. Although it is a subject of recent technological origin, the art of packaging is a sold as the primitative humans. Packaging is the science, art, and technology of enclosing or protecting products for distribution, storage, sale, and use, also refers to the process of design, evaluation, and production of packages and can be described as a coordinated system of preparing goods for transport, warehousing, logistics, sale, and end use. Packaging contains, protects, preserves, transports, informs, and sells. In many countries it is fully integrated into government, business, institutional, industrial, and personal use. The continual technological growth systems have undergone significant changes in recent years. A lot of packaging process has been streamlined to give a more scientific and rational approach. The role of packaging continues from the coordinated system of preparing goods to the end use. It has become a big tool for launching new specific products in different shapes and sizes. The packaging industrial growth has led to greater specialization and sophistication from the point of view of health (in the case of packaged foods and medicines) and environment friendliness of packing material. The demands on the packaging industry are challenging, given the increasing environmental awareness among communities. The packaging industry is growing at the rate of 22 to 25 per cent per annum thus is to play a unique role in preserving the wealth or value created by many industries.

This book describes the techniques and process behind packaging of different specific products which are used in our day to day life. The specific products include cereal, spices, edible oils, drinking water, chocolate and confectionery, fruits and vegetables, marine products and many more. Some of the vital contents of the book are adhesives for packaging industries, factors affecting adhesion, tin plate containers for foods, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics, tin plate usage in packaging, packaging of cereals and cereal products, trends in packaging of spices and spice products, packaging of edible oils, vanaspati and ghee, metal containers for food packaging, packaging aspects of sugar and chocolate confectionery, packaging for irradiated foods, packing of meat & meat products in tin containers etc.

This book is an invaluable resource for all its readers, entrepreneurs, scientists, existing industries, technical institution, etc in the field of packaging.

1. Adhesives for Packaging Industries
Typical Application in packaging
(a) Loss of water or solvent
(b) Loss of Heat
Theories of adhesion
a. Mechanical Interlocking
b. Electrostatic Interaction
c. Diffusion Theory
d. Absorption Theory
Factors affecting adhesion
Degradation Products of Starch
Comparison between starch and Sodium Silicate
Basic urethane chemistry
Natural Rubber
Polyvinyl Acetate
Polyvinyl Alcohols

2. Tin Plate Containers for Foods, Pharmaceuticals 
and Cosmetics
Manufacturing Process
Can Sealants

3. Tinplate Containers
Open Top containers
General Line containers
Manufacturer of Tinplate containers
Manufacture in Press Shop
Component/end manufacture on presses
Ancillary operations
Manufacture of Assembly Lines
End seaming
Ancillary operations (if any)
Flattened Cans
Process Control
Blackplate Containers
Tinplate Closures

4. Metal Container Industry In India
Raw Material
Manufacturing Process

5. Tin Plate Usage In Packaging
Round Ends tinplate Layout Systems And Procedures
Straight and Single
Double Row Staggered
Straight, Single Scrolled
Duble Row Staggered Scrolled
Multiple Row Fully Stagered Plain
Double Row Staggered With Primary (deep) 
or Secondary Scroll
Coil Feed : Single Or Multiple Die Set up:

6. Packaging of Cereals and Cereal Products
Spoilage Factors
Whole Grains & Split Pulses
Jute Bags
Advantages of Jute Bags and Jute Fabrics
High mechanical strength
Soft surface with high resistance to friction
Porous structure
Disadvantages of Jute Bags
Mineral oil contamination
Insect breeding
High Density Polyethylene (HDPE)/
Propylene (PP) Woven Sacks
Manufacturing Process of HDPE Woven Sacks
Extrusion Of Slit Film
Bale Pressing and Packing
Advantages of HDPE & PP Woven Sacks
Disadvantages of HDPE & PP Woven Sacks
Quality Parameters to be Considered for Woven Sacks
Consumer Packs for Whole Food Grains
Milled Grain Products (Flours)
Bulk Packs
Consumer Packs
High Molecular High Density Polyethylene (HMHDPE)
Co-Extruded Films
Biaxially Oriented Polypropylene Film : (BOPP)
Processed Cereal and Pulse Products
Cereal Based Convenience Foods
Weaning Foods

7. Trends in Packaging of Spices and Spice Products
Packaging of Ground Spices
Bulk Packaging and Storage of Whole Spices
Packaging of Oleoresins and Volatile Oils
Insect Infestation and Fumigation
Literature Data on Packaging
Future Trends

8. Packaging of Edible Oils, Vanaspati and Ghee

Spoilage Factors
Distribution Pattern
Packaging Systems/Types of Pack
Package Types
Tinplate Containers
Glass Bottles
Semi-Rigid Containers
HDPE (High Density Polyethylene) Containers 
PET (Polyethylene Terephthalate) Bottles
PVC (Poly Vinyl Chloride) Bottles
Other Semi-rigid Packs
Flexible Pouches
Analysis of Needs and Shifts
Structures and Critical Polymers
Critical Polymers
A Closer Look
Flexibles as Economical Media
Flexibles as Effective Solid Waste Reducing Media
Indian Standard for Packaging of Edible Oils, Vanaspati and Ghee

9. Metal Containers for Food Packaging
Tinplate Containers
Developments in Tinplate Manufacture
Structure of Tincoating
Light tin coated steel (LTS)
Developments in can fabrication
Two Piece Cans
Drawn Thin Redraw (DTR) and precision sidewall thickness 
control (PSTC) process
Plain Cans
Acid resistant lacquered cans
Sulphur resistant lacquered cans
High Tin Fillet (HTF) can
Corrosion problem in food cans and its inhibition
Quality control tests
Thickness of tinplate
Grain structure of tincoating
Coating continuity (porosity) test (ISV)
Tin oxide
Chromium in passivation layer
Special property tests
Tin Free Steel Cans
Hinac coat
Stainless weirchrome
Fabrication of TFS cans
Mira seam
Forge welding
Advantages and Disadvantages of Tin Free Steel
Physical characteristics of HI-Top Plate
Corrosion resistance
Lacquering quality
Weldability and solderability
Canning Food Products in Tin-free steel cans
Fish products
Meat products
Fruit and Vegetable products
Aluminium containers
Package forms
Aluminium closures and ends
Conventional closures
Easy open ends are of two types
Packaging of Food Products in Aluminium Cans
Fruit and vegetable products
Lacquered cans
Meat products
Marine products
Milk products
Alcoholic drinks
Corrosion in Aluminium cans
External decoration and Printing
Future Scope
Evaluation of indigenous electrolytic tinplate
Assessment of differential tinplate
Evaluation of indigenous aluminium cans for processed foods

10. Packaging of Drinking Water
Brief History
Main Processing System
Packaging Materials
Bottle Filling113
Bottle Labelling

11. Bottle Labelling
The Product Group
Packaging Materials for Snack Foods
Packaging Systems
Gas flushing
Compensated vacuum

12. Packaging Aspects of Sugar and Chocolate Confectionery
Packaging Requirements
Packaging Requirements
Sugar Confectionery
Packaging Materials and Packages
Packaging Materials 

13. Packaging for Biscuits
Protection Presentation, Information and Convenience
The Wrapping Materials
The Packaging Styles

14. Packaging Trends for Cheese and Other Dairy Products

Milk Powder-Bulk
Milk Powder-Retail
Ice Cream
Cheese - Retail

15. Packaging of Milk

16. Packaging of Fish

Important Quality Aspects of Fresh Fish
Packaging Concepts
Vacuum Packaging
Modified Atmosphere Packaging
Active Packaging
Packaging Requirements
Final Remarks and Future Developments

17. Packaging for Irradiated Foods

Food Borne Illness is a Global Concern
Commercialization of Food Irradiation Worldwide
Food Irradiation in the U.S.A.
Barriers to Widespread Commercialization of 
Food Irradiation in the U.S.A.
The Consumer Acceptance Barrier
The Cost Barrier
The Capacity Barrier
The Regulatory Barrier
Pasteurized Milk Case History
Packaging for Irradiation
Packaging Materials for use during Irradiation of Food
What action should Food Processors Take?

18. Development in Modified Atmosphere Packaging Of Meat, Poultry and Fish
Historical Development
Modified Atmosphere Technology
Equipments and Films For MAP
Patents Available
Effects of Gases on MAP Foods
Effect of MAP on the Quality of Fresh Meats
Effect of Map on Processed Meats
Package Integrity and Quality of MAP Foods
Safety Concerns of MAP Muscle Foods
Cost Benefit Relationship

19. Packing of Meat & Meat Products in Tin Containers
Raw Materials
Cans and Lids
Vinyl Lacquers
Phenolic Lacquers
Internal Corrosion
Filling Operations
Can Seaming
Dehydrated Meat Products

20. Aseptic Packaging
Microbiological Aspects of Aseptic Packaging
Sterilization of the Packaging Material Food Contact Surface
The Tetra Classic Aseptic System (TCA)
The TBA/3-System
The TBA/8 and TBA/9 Systems
The TBA/10-System

21. Aluminium Cans for Heat-Sterilized Food Products
Current Usage
Recent Innovations
Material Recyclability

22. Aluminium Container for Fish Canning
Materials and Methods
Results and Discussion

23. Aluminium in Flexible Packaging
Benefits of Aluminium based Packaging Materials
Technical properties of Aluminium Foil
Some Technical Applications of Aluminium Foil
Other way of Classifying Applications
Various Popularly known product groups and structures
Why Aluminium is preferred in Various Applications
Machines and Equipment for the manufacture of 
Flexible Packaging Material
Wet Laminating Machine
Dry Laminating Machine
Hot Coating Laminating Machine
Extrusion Laminating Machines
Coating Machine
Printing Machines
Various QC Test Relevant to Applications
Modern Trends in Packaging
X. New Technologies
Solventless Lamination
Advantages of Solventless Lamination
Digital Printing

24. Aluminium Foil in Pharmaceutical 
Packaging-Recent Developments
Influential factors on pharmaceutical products
The Alu-Alu blister (Formpack)
Multi Axial Dehnung (Stretching)
Lidding foils
Summary and outlook

25. Aluminium Foil

Stadard Conditions of Bare Aluminium Foil
Standard Finishes of Bare Aluminium Foil

26. Aluminium and Foil Production Methods
How Aluminium is Made
Rolling Aluminium Foil

27. Aluminium In Packaging : Current Scenerio

28. The Process of Producing Collapsible Aluminium Tubes

Producing Tubes of different Diameters and Forms
Chains in Dryers and Ovens
Lubrication of Machines
Technical Developments

29. Aluminium Cans in Packaging
Manufacturing Process
Coating and Decoration
Easy Open Ends
Lacquers and Coating
Testing and Quality Control

30. Aluminium Foils for Composite Containers
Aluminium Foil Membrane on Tin Cans

31. Aluminium Collapsible Tubes

32. Aluminium collapsible tubes their suitability-reliability-availability

33. Pharmaceutical Packaging Collapsible Tubes
Pharmaceutical Containers 
Collapsible Tubes
Advantages of collapsible tubes
Pharmaceutical Forms Packed in Collapsible Tubes
Selection in metal collapsible tubes
Testing of collapsible tubes
Eye Ointment tube
Shelf life tests
Filling of collapsible tubes

34. The Birth of an Aluminium Collapsible Tube

35. Embossing Aluminium Foil

36. Wooden Containers

Classification of Timbers
Seasoning of Wood
Physical and Mechanical Properties of Timber
Mechanical Properties
Methods of Preservation of Timber
Form and size of Each Component
Thickness of Components
Size and Spacing of Nails
Number of Planks in a Shook
Type of Joints
Style of Container
Consideration for a Design of the Box
Easy Load
Average Load
Difficult Load
Grouping of Indian Timbers
Plywood Boxes - Battened Construction

37. Tinplate Container for Packaging of Fruit and Vegetable Products
Standards for Metal Containers

38. Tetra Pak Application in Food Packaging

39. Printing on Foil

40. Aerosol
A Pressurised Form of Packaging and Dispensing a product

41. Foil Bag, Pouch and Envelope Production
Envelope making
Pouch making
Folding Carton Production
Foil/Fibre can and Drum Production

42. Packaging of Cashew Kernels in Tin Plate Containers

43. Packaging of Paints in Tin Plate Containers

44. Application to Food Packaging-Form-Fill-Seal Machines

45. Shrink Packaging-Food Products

46. The Aerosol Package-Container Manufacture

47. Sterilization Methods for Packaging Materials used in aseptic systems
Testing Procedures
Requirement of Aseptic Systems

48. Blow Moulded Containers for Food Packaging
Basic Process Concepts
Technology Development for Food Packaging
Aseptic Containers
Barrier Containers
PET Containers
Newer Developments

49. Thermoformed and Blow Moulded Containers for Food Packaging Applications


50. Role of BOPP Films in Food Packaging
Properties of BOPP Films
Role of BOPP Film in Food Packaging
New Developments in BOPP Films

51. Modified Atmosphere Packaging of Fresh Fruits and Vegetables
Factor Influencing Shelf-life of Fruits and Vegetables
Respiratory Metabolism
Controlled Atmosphere (CA) Storage Technology
Advantages of MAP Technology
Limitations of MAP Technology
Dynamics of Gaseous Exchange in MAP
MA Package Design
Mathematical Modelling of Gaseous Exchange in MAP
Computer-Aided Design of MAP
Verification of Predicted Values
Tailored Plastics Film-Laminates

52. Plastics
Distinction Between Plastics, Fibres and Elastomers
Techniques of Polymerization
Processing of Plastics
Compression Moulding

53. Plastic Corrugated Board

54. Polyester Film

55. Nylon-6 Film - A Revolution in Packaging

56. Plastic Woven Sacks

Plastic Woven Sack Materials
High Density Polyethylene (HDPE)
Polypropylene (PP)
Method of Making Woven Sacks
Flexible Intermediate Bulk Containers (FIBC)
Construction of FIBC
Use of Woven Sacks/FIBC

57. Low Density Polyethylene


58. High Density Polyethylene

59. PVC in Packaging

60. Biaxially Oriented Polypropylene Film

61. Expanded Polyethylene Material

62. Expanded Polystyrene

Properties of EPS

63. Shrink and Stretch Wrapping
Shrink Packaging
Stretch Wrapping
Pilfer- Proof Packs
Pallet Stretch Wrapping

64. New Developments Paper pulp Based Moulded Containers for Fruits and Vegetables
Apple Tray Packaging Concept
Consumer Pack Trays
Tray Hand Wrapping Machine

65. Solid Fibre Board Box as a Transport Pack

B. Combination Board-What is it?
C. Solid fibre board with moisture/water proof inner or outer lining
D. Solid Fibre Board with Hessian Lining

66. "Quality Control-Specifications and Performance Requirements of Fird Boxes"
Quality Control
Quality Control on Cor
Specifications and Performance Requirements of Fibreboard Boxes

67. Folding Board Cartons and Coated Cartons Manufacture
Relevant Properties of Paper/Board for Carton Manufacture
Bursting Strength
Grain Direction
Moisture Content
Manufacturing Process
Computer Controlled Inking

68. Cellulosic Films

69. Multiwall Paper Sacks

70. Speciality Papers for Packaging

71. Flexible Packaging Laminates and Coatings Application

Disaster Relief Packages
Snack Food Packaging
Corn Chips
Cross Laminated Film
Modified Atmosphere Packaging
Fresh Red Meat
Cold Seal Adhesives for Flexible Packaging
Hot Melt Adhesives
Metallising Film/Paper

72. Adhesive Tapes

73. G.I. Drums-Oil Drums-Closures
Type of Drums
Standardisation of Metal Container
Selection of Drums
Manufacture of Drums
Reconditioning Industry
Quality Control
Essential Functions of Closures
Recent Development in Drums
Market Analysis
Market Share and Competitors Activities

74. Packaging in Glass Containers

75. Laminated Tubes
Market Trends

76. Converting Materials and Methods

Laminating Materials
Laminating Aluminium Foil
Coating Aluminium Foil

77. Aseptic Packaging Materials and Package Forms

78. Printing Inks for Food Packaging

Printing Processes and Printing Inks
Hue and Strength
Drying Time
Strength (Concentration of Pigment): Reduction Test

79. Closures in Food Packaging
Functions of a closure
Components involved in a good seal
Materials used in the manufacture of closures
Resilient Materials
Facing Materials
Compatibility of closures and migration limits
Factors Effecting A Good Seal
Types of closures
Roll-on-Pilferproof Closures
Screw Caps
Lug Cap
Crown Caps
Plastic Closures

80. Packaging Laws and Regulations

PFA Rules
Other Labelling Rules under PFA
FPO Rules
MFPO Rules
Agmark Rules

Directory Section

Suppliers of Machinery & Plants
Suppliers of Raw Materials 




In this world of fast changing life styles, consumers prefer products to be lightweight, shatterproof, cheap, aesthetically appealing, easy to handle, with good protection. The only answer to everything is plastics. Plastics have, in fact, revolutionised the whole world in the past three decades. They have become part and parcel in every walk if life. Flexible packaging materials such as polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, polypropylene, polyester films play a major role in almost all the industries-especially food packaging sector-Biaxially Oriented Polypropylene (BOPP) film is one among them.

BOPP film suitable for food packaging industry is generally a coextruded, heat-sealable film though non-heatsealable films are also used. Coextruded, heat sealable films are used as a single web for packaging of products unlike polyester which cannot be heat sealed on its own and warrants a second web to be laminated.


BOPP films are generally manufactured by the following processes:

  1. a) Sequential orientation:
    1. 1. Stenter process
    2. 2. Double bubble process
  2. b) Simultaneous orientation

Since sequential orientation by stenter is the most commercially employed process for the manufacture of BOPP films, this will be discussed here.

Homopolymer polypropylene is dosed with various functional additives such as amides, ethoxylated amines, stearates etc., to reduce the film's coefficient of friction and to increase static charge dissipation rate. It is also mixed with various fillers such as talc, calcium carbonate and pigments like titanium dioxide to provide different shades and colours to the film. Polypropylene with requisite additives, fillers, pigments is melt coextruded as a thick sheet. Through one or more satellite coextruders a random copolymer of polypropylene or other terpolymers is melt coextruded on either one or both surfaces of the homopolymer sheet. The homopolymer core layer, which is generally between 70-90% of total thickness, provides mechanical strength, optical properties, reduction in density (in certain cases) etc. The copolymer skin layers which may contain the above stated functional additives, in addition may also contain anti-blocking additives. These skin layers render the film heatsealable, improve optical properties, etc.

The sheet, thus extruded, is solidified by passing it over a chill roll kept in a water bath. The cast sheet is then passed over several heated, chrome-plated rolls, which pre-heat it. After achieving sufficient heat, it is passed over two or more pairs of rolls in which one set of rolls rotate at faster speed than its proceeding rolls. Because of the difference in circumferential speed, the film is oriented in longitudinal direction. The orientation is generally to the tune of 4-7 times.

The mono-oriented film is then clipped by clippers which carry them into a hot air circulated oven. The clippers are placed over a parallel laid chain track. After sufficiently heating transverse direction orientation to the tune of about 7-10 times, the biaxially oriented film is then annealed to retain the oriented stresses, cooled to room temperature, unoriented gripped portions are trimmed, corona treated to enhance surface tension and wound in jumbo rolls (Fig. 1).


Polypropylene has the lowest density of 0.095 g/cc of all the plastics available so far. In a special grade of pearlised BOPP film, the density is further reduced to 0.700 g/cc apart from providing a pearly aesthetic look, light barrier, etc. Owing to the lowest density of PP, the yield of the film is more than other films and hence economical.

Biaxial Orientation of Polypropylene enhances various properties over conventional cast or tubular quenched PP films. The mechanical strength, dimensional stability, stiffness, non-tearability, optical properties, barrier properties, etc. are greatly improved owing to biaxial orienting process. Table-1 provides comparative property details of various films.


The main advantages in using BOPP films are:

  1. It provides higher surface area per unit weight which makes it cost effective.
  2. It has very low moisture transmission rate than other packaging films which improves the shelf life and retains crispness of the food products sensitive to moisture.
  3. It has combination of excellent slip and optical properties. The high gloss and excellent clarity provides good aesthetic appeal whereas controlled slip properties make it suitable to perform well on various FFS, overwrapping and converting machines in order to improves or maintain well on various FFS, overwrapping and converting machines in order to improve or maintain high productivity.
  4. It's high tensile strength, low elongation and thermal shrinkage makes it suitable for processing on high speed printing, coating/laminating and other converting machines.
  5. It can be tailor made to suit various customer needs which may be combination of any of optical/surface, optical/barrier and optical/mechanical properties etc.
  6. It is non-reactive or inert due to olefinic (hydrocarbon) nature which makes it suitable for safe use in food and pharmaceutical industry. It is also suitable for common methods of sterilisation practised presently in the industry.
  7. The coextruded heat sealable films are preferred because they provide sealability in addition to barrier and better aesthetics without involvement of any additional coating or laminating operation thus making the package cost effective.
  8. It is recyclable and does not emit hazardous gas while reprocessing.



The food packaging requirements are very stringent. Biaxially Oriented Polypropylene (BOPP) film has many properties which are suitable and advantageous for packing of food. The basic properties required for packing of foods are given below:

  1. The package should be able to protect the nutritional properties of the food until final consumption. Therefore, it is desirable that the package should have sufficient barrier to moisture, gas and light.
  2. The package should be cost effective.
  3. The package should be able to enhance the product sales appeal on the shelf and also be able to give all the statutory information. Hence, the pack should have good optical properties and printability. BOPP film has excellent clarity, transparency and gloss.
  4. The pack should be convenient to the consumer for opening, handling and storage. During handling and storage, the pack should be able to protect the food from crushing, breakage etc. It should also be shatterproof.
  5. The pack should be non-toxic. The contents of the pack should not migrate to the product packed in it and spoil its quality and cause harmful effects.

BOPP films has following properties which makes it an ideal choice for food packaging

  1. Good Mechanical properties
  2. Good thermal properties
  3. Good Optical properties
  4. Good surface properties
  5. Good Electrical properties
  6. Good yield
  7. Good barrier properties
  1. Mechanical Properties: The mechanical properties include tensile strength, elongation, stiffness, tearability, etc. The mechanical properties provide sufficient strength to the film to undergo different converting operations such as printing, coating, lamination and packaging.
  2. Good Thermal Properties
    1. Shrinkage: The lower shrinkage value of BOPP film ensures minimal dimensional changes with change in temperature.
    2. Heat seal properties: The heat sealability of a packaging film is one of the most important properties when considering its use in overwrapping and pouching applications. The integrity of the seal is of prime importance, which depends on
      • Pressure of the jaw
      • Temperature of the jaw
      • Accuracy of the installed temperature controllers
      • Dwell time
    3. For a better machineability of the film on the machine, optimum values are required. A good control on the set of temperature range will help in obtaining a proper seal. Wide variety of BOPP films having sealing temperature as low as 90oC is available. Lower the seal temperature, faster will be packing machine speed.
  3. Good Optical properties: The optical property of BOPP film is as good as polyester film but superior to PVC, Polyethylene film etc. The BOPP film has excellent gloss, transparency and very low haze values making it suitable for print lamination and reverse printing application.
  4. Good surface properties
    1. Coefficient of friction: This is a measure of the relative difficulty with which the surface of one material will slide over an adjoining surface of itself or of another material. The static coefficient of friction is related to the force necessary to begin movement of surfaces, while kinetic coefficient of friction refers to the force needed to sustain the movement. Frictional properties of a film are important both during its passage through printing or wrapping machine and after being made up into bag, or over wrap. It is normally preferred to have controlled slip values of the film for better machine ability, because during the passage of the film through packing equipments it is subjected to variety of forces including some of which press the film tightly against flat metal surfaces. If the slip properties are lowered the path of travel of film through equipment can be arrested completely. The consequent strain in the film can lead to elongation and or distortion. Highly slippery film will not run properly on the machine and can lead to empty over wraps. It can also impair optical and printability characteristics of the film. Hence, a controlled slip is always required in the film.
    2. Treatment level: BOPP film is subjected to corona treatment to form a surface, receptive to inks, lacquers or adhesives. Though the treatment level reduces with the migration of additives to the surface of the film, still the treatment level remains sufficient for printing and lamination. As a thumb rule, if the surface tension of the film is at least 38 dynes/cm, it is considered to be suitable for printing, coating or lamination.
  5. (v) Good Electrical Properties: Static charge: being of polyolefin nature, BOPP film has a tendency to develop static charge which many a times becomes for applications like printing and over wrapping. Films having high static charge create following problems in general.
    • Attract dust and thereby affect printability
    • Difficulty in separation/release of individual layers of the film
    • Jamming of film on machine due to attraction to steel parts and thereby causing scratches to the film.
  6. Antistatic additives are added during the production of BOPP. Further, better results can be obtained if "Static charge eliminators" are installed at strategic portions on the machines.
  7. Good Yield: BOPP film being the film with lowest density (0.905 g/cc) provides more surface area for the same unit weight. It means that more number of products can be packed or over wrapped with BOPP film than with PET or PVC. Furthermore, a special grade called pearl luster film with still lower density of 0.70 g/cc is also available.
  8. Good Barrier Properties: Food compounds such as proteins, liquids and certain vitamins can undergo detrimental changes as a result of exposure of light, oxygen and moisture. The factors influencing deteriorative charges in food are given in Table 2.


In food packaging industry, the types of BOPP films used are:

  1. Transparent and opaque non-heat sealable
  2. Transparent heat sealable
  3. Opaque heat sealable
  4. Pearlised heat sealable
  5. Super seal
  6. Metallized, heat sealable

(a)Transparent & Opaque Non-heat Sealable Film: This grade of film is generally used in conjunction with wax-coated paper for biscuit packing. The low moisture vapour transmission rate (MVTR) of BOPP film renders the biscuit retains its crispness. If a opaque film is used, it further cuts down light penetration and protects the biscuits against U-V radiation, thereby fat and oil in the latter are not oxidised. Wax coated paper helps in sealability, giving printability and body to the pack.

(b)Transparent Heat Sealable film: This grade of film is used in packing all snack foods oxygen transmission rate (OTR) of BOPP film is the choice for packing products such as potato wafers. Its excellent tensile strength, stiffness enables the film to be employed in any kinds of packaging systems whether vertical form-fill-seal (VFFS) or horizontal form-fill-seal (HFFS) or strip packing etc. Its inherent heat sealability is an added advantage. BOPP film's low elongation and good surface tension enable it to be excellently printed. Products generally packed in this film are biscuits, potato wafers (with nitrogen gas flushing), masalas, readymix recipes, cough lozenges etc.

(c)Opaque Heat Sealable film: Generally, opaque films are white pigmented to act as a light barrier. The opacity of the film is 80-90%. A high oil and fat containing product is easily oxidised by U-V light leading to rancidity. Protection against light is also achieved, in addition to all the other properties of BOPP film. Again this is used in packing biscuits, chocolates, biscuit wafers, potato wafers, cough lozenges etc.

Table 2. Factors Influencing deteriorative changes in foods

FactorEffect on food system
Light Oxidation of fats and oils, cholesterol
Destruction of fat-soluble vitamins A and E
Destruction of riboflavin and other water-soluble vitamins
Changes in proteins and amino acids. Changes in food pigments
Temperature Acceleration of chemical reactions
Increase in bacterial growth rate
Increase of gas diffusion
Oxygen Oxidation of liquid components
Losses of protein quality
Changes in food pigments
Destruction of certain vitamins
Spoilage due to change in pH
Increased growth of putrefactive organisms
(Infection by mold, fungus, or bacteria)
Destruction of aroma (organolepitc changes)
Penetration of Oxidation of fats and oils
Moisture Non-enzymatic browing reaction
Decrease in nutritional quality value in food
Growth of microorganisms such as bacteria, mold and yeast
Loss of attributes such as crispness
Caking of loosely packed dehydrated foods.
Loss of moisture Dry up
Weight loss
Change in consistency
Loss of flavour Formation of off-flavour by reaction with components
and aroma Change in flavour components
Reduction in quantity of falvor components
Contamination by odd smell/odour.

(d)Pearlised Film: Apart from being opaque, this film provides a shiny, eye-catching, pearly appeal. Further, its lowest density (0.700 g/cc) enables the convertor to pack more products per quantity of film. Coupled with these two unique properties, the pearlised BOPP film is widely used for packing chocolates, biscuits, biscuit wafers, toffees etc.

(e)Super Seal: This is one side heat sealable film with high heat seal strength. The flowability of the heat seal layer and high heat seal strength is useful in packing products like powders where the pouch/pack can carry more load. Generally when powders are packed by vertical form-fill-seal technique, owing to the static charge developed during movement of the film and pouring of powder, certain particles get stuck throughout the area of the pouch. In such cases, those powders may also be present at the seal area. Superseal film can seal through those powders and retain the integrity of seal. Further, since its heat seal strength is sufficiently higher, more volume of product can be packed. This superseal film could be either transparent or opaque or pearlised. Products that can be packed are biscuits, masalas, readymix recipes, skimmed milk powder, etc.

(f)Metallized Heat Sealable film: Metallization is a process of depositing a thin layer of metal over the film under vacuum. The metal generally used is aluminium. Earlier, owing to poor surface tension of BOPP films, a primer coating was essential for free anchorage of metal layer. Now, a special grade of BOPP film is freely available which does not warrant a primer coating and still can be barrier metallized. About 250-1000oA thick deposition of aluminium drastically improves the light, moisture vapour and oxygen barrier of metallized films. Further it eliminates the problems of pinholes, poor flex resistance often encountered in bare aluminium foil. The optical density of about 2.0 is maintained to achieve better barrier properties. This film either alone or as a laminate with other films is popularly used for packing of cream biscuits, stuffed biscuits, pan masala, scented supari, etc.


Recently, atleast two or more BOPP film grades are developed viz. Metallized BOPP film with matte aluminium foil look, translucent film for reverse printing and lamination, heat sealable synthetic paper etc. With consumers' views and tastes keeping changing, more and more films are expected to be developed. The future may witness, a lot of coated BOPP films freely available.

Among them could be PVdC coated film, PVOH coated film, acrylic coated film, coated film for high speed overwrap and packaging, etc. The shift will definitely be towards coated BOPP films possessing excellent water, gas and aroma barrier.


Probable structure PET (RP) Typical Application
BOPP (MET) Pan masala and Spices where aroma retention is required
LDPE BOPP (RP) BOPP (MET) Potato chips, Biscuits and other oil & fat containing products
LDPE BOPP (RP) LDPE/SURLYN Powdery materials, like starch, detergent, noodles, vermicelli etc.
BOPP (SP/RP) Noodfles, Biscuits, other snack food products.
BOPP (HST-Plain) BOPP (RP) Snack food products
BOPP (MET, HS)RET (RP) Cough, lozenges, candy etc.
Pearlised BOPP BOPP Wax Paper Biscuits and other snack food products.

PET = Polyethylene terepthalate, RP = Reverse Printing, MET = Metallized, LDPE = Low density Polyethylene

SP = Surface Printing, HST = Heat Sealable, HS = High Speed, SURLYN = Modified LDPE.


There are over 40 BOPP Film manufacturers in the world. Estimated global capacity is about 1.7 million tonnes per annum and the consumption is about 1.3 million tonnes. The growth rate of BOPP films worldwide is 810% per annum. This rate of growth is expected to sustain for the next five years as BOPP films are still fast replacing various other films and substrates. With the advent of newer technologies and developments, more grades of BOPP films may be launched which will further boost the consumption of these films in food packaging.




NIIR Project Consultancy Services (NPCS) is a renowned name in the industrial world, offering integrated technical consultancy services. Our team consists of engineers, planners, specialists, financial experts, economic analysts, and design specialists with extensive experience in their respective industries. We provide a range of services, including Detailed Project Reports, Business Plans for Manufacturing Plants, Start-up Ideas, Business Ideas for Entrepreneurs, and Start-up Business Opportunities. Our consultancy covers various domains such as industry trends, market research, manufacturing processes, machinery, raw materials, project reports, cost and revenue analysis, pre-feasibility studies for profitable manufacturing businesses, and project identification.

Our Services

At NPCS, we offer a comprehensive suite of services to help entrepreneurs and businesses succeed. Our key services include:

  • Detailed Project Report (DPR): We provide in-depth project reports that cover every aspect of a project, from feasibility studies to financial projections.
  • Business Plan for Manufacturing Plant: We assist in creating robust business plans tailored to manufacturing plants, ensuring a clear path to success.
  • Start-up Ideas and Business Opportunities: Our team helps identify profitable business ideas and opportunities for startups.
  • Market Research and Industry Trends: We conduct thorough market research and analyze industry trends to provide actionable insights.
  • Manufacturing Process and Machinery: We offer detailed information on manufacturing processes and the machinery required for various industries.
  • Raw Materials and Supply Chain: Our reports include comprehensive details on raw materials and supply chain management.
  • Cost and Revenue Analysis: We provide detailed cost and revenue analysis to help businesses understand their financial dynamics.
  • Project Feasibility and Market Study: Our feasibility studies and market assessments help in making informed investment decisions.
  • Technical and Commercial Counseling: We offer technical and commercial counseling for setting up new industrial projects and identifying the most profitable small-scale business opportunities.


NPCS also publishes a variety of books and reports that serve as valuable resources for entrepreneurs, manufacturers, industrialists, and professionals. Our publications include:

  • Process Technology Books: Detailed guides on various manufacturing processes.
  • Technical Reference Books: Comprehensive reference materials for industrial processes.
  • Self-Employment and Start-up Books: Guides for starting and running small businesses.
  • Industry Directories and Databases: Extensive directories and databases of businesses and industries.
  • Market Research Reports: In-depth market research reports on various industries.
  • Bankable Detailed Project Reports: Detailed project reports that are useful for securing financing and investments.

Our Approach

Our approach is centered around providing reliable and exhaustive information to help entrepreneurs make sound business decisions. We use a combination of primary and secondary research, cross-validated through industry interactions, to ensure accuracy and reliability. Our reports are designed to cover all critical aspects, including:

  • Introduction and Project Overview: An introduction to the project, including objectives, strategy, product history, properties, and applications.
  • Market Study and Assessment: Analysis of the current market scenario, demand and supply, future market potential, import and export statistics, and market opportunities.
  • Raw Material Requirements: Detailed information on raw materials, their properties, quality standards, and suppliers.
  • Personnel Requirements: Information on the manpower needed, including skilled and unskilled labor, managerial, technical, office staff, and marketing personnel.
  • Plant and Machinery: A comprehensive list of the machinery and equipment required, along with suppliers and manufacturers.
  • Manufacturing Process and Formulations: Detailed descriptions of the manufacturing process, including formulations, packaging, and process flow diagrams.
  • Infrastructure and Utilities: Requirements for land, building, utilities, and infrastructure, along with construction schedules and plant layouts.

Financial Details and Analysis

Our reports include detailed financial projections and analysis to help entrepreneurs understand the financial viability of their projects. Key financial details covered in our reports include:

  • Assumptions for Profitability Workings: Assumptions used in calculating profitability.
  • Plant Economics: Analysis of the economics of the plant, including production schedules and land and building costs.
  • Production Schedule: Detailed production schedules and timelines.
  • Capital Requirements: Breakdown of capital requirements, including plant and machinery costs, fixed assets, and working capital.
  • Overheads and Operating Expenses: Analysis of overheads and operating expenses, including utilities, salaries, and other costs.
  • Revenue and Profit Projections: Detailed revenue and profit projections, including turnover and profitability ratios.
  • Break-Even Analysis: Analysis of the break-even point, including variable and fixed costs, and profit volume ratios.

Reasons to Choose NPCS

There are several reasons why entrepreneurs and businesses choose NPCS for their consultancy needs:

  • Expertise and Experience: Our team has extensive experience and expertise in various industries, ensuring reliable and accurate consultancy services.
  • Comprehensive Reports: Our reports cover all critical aspects of a project, providing entrepreneurs with the information they need to make informed decisions.
  • Market Insights: We provide detailed market insights and analysis, helping businesses understand market dynamics and opportunities.
  • Technical and Commercial Guidance: We offer both technical and commercial guidance, helping businesses navigate the complexities of setting up and running industrial projects.
  • Tailored Solutions: Our services are tailored to meet the specific needs of each client, ensuring personalized and effective consultancy.

Market Survey cum Detailed Techno Economic Feasibility Report

Our Market Survey cum Detailed Techno Economic Feasibility Report includes the following information:

  • Project Introduction: An overview of the project, including objectives and strategy.
  • Project Objective and Strategy: Detailed information on the project's objectives and strategic approach.
  • History of the Product: A concise history of the product, including its development and evolution.
  • Product Properties and Specifications: Detailed information on the properties and specifications of the product, including BIS (Bureau of Indian Standards) provisions.
  • Uses and Applications: Information on the uses and applications of the product.

Market Study and Assessment

  • Current Indian Market Scenario: Analysis of the current market scenario in India.
  • Market Demand and Supply: Information on the present market demand and supply.
  • Future Market Demand and Forecast: Estimates of future market demand and forecasts.
  • Import and Export Statistics: Data on import and export statistics.
  • Market Opportunity: Identification of market opportunities.

Raw Material Requirements

  • List of Raw Materials: Detailed list of raw materials required.
  • Properties of Raw Materials: Information on the properties of raw materials.
  • Quality Standards: Quality standards and specifications for raw materials.
  • Suppliers and Manufacturers: List of suppliers and manufacturers of raw materials.

Personnel Requirements

  • Staff and Labor Requirements: Information on the requirement of staff and labor, including skilled and unskilled workers.
  • Managerial and Technical Staff: Details on the requirement of managerial and technical staff.
  • Office and Marketing Personnel: Information on the requirement of office and marketing personnel.

Plant and Machinery

  • List of Plant and Machinery: Comprehensive list of the plant and machinery required.
  • Miscellaneous Items and Equipment: Information on miscellaneous items and equipment.
  • Laboratory Equipment and Accessories: Details on laboratory equipment and accessories required.
  • Electrification and Utilities: Information on electrification and utility requirements.
  • Maintenance Costs: Details on maintenance costs.
  • Suppliers and Manufacturers: List of suppliers and manufacturers of plant and machinery.

Manufacturing Process and Formulations

  • Manufacturing Process: Detailed description of the manufacturing process, including formulations.
  • Packaging Requirements: Information on packaging requirements.
  • Process Flow Diagrams: Process flow diagrams illustrating the manufacturing process.

Infrastructure and Utilities

  • Project Location: Information on the project location.
  • Land Area Requirements: Details on the requirement of land area.
  • Land Rates: Information on land rates.
  • Built-Up Area: Details on the built-up area required.
  • Construction Schedule: Information on the construction schedule.
  • Plant Layout: Details on the plant layout and utility requirements.

Project at a Glance

Our reports provide a snapshot of the project, including:

  • Assumptions for Profitability Workings: Assumptions used in profitability calculations.
  • Plant Economics: Analysis of the plant's economics.
  • Production Schedule: Detailed production schedules.
  • Capital Requirements: Breakdown of capital requirements.
  • Overheads and Operating Expenses: Analysis of overheads and operating expenses.
  • Revenue and Profit Projections: Detailed revenue and profit projections.
  • Break-Even Analysis: Analysis of the break-even point.


Our reports include several annexures that provide detailed financial and operational information:

  • Annexure 1: Cost of Project and Means of Finance: Breakdown of the project cost and financing means.
  • Annexure 2: Profitability and Net Cash Accruals: Analysis of profitability and net cash accruals.
  • Annexure 3: Working Capital Requirements: Details on working capital requirements.
  • Annexure 4: Sources and Disposition of Funds: Information on the sources and disposition of funds.
  • Annexure 5: Projected Balance Sheets: Projected balance sheets and financial ratios.
  • Annexure 6: Profitability Ratios: Analysis of profitability ratios.
  • Annexure 7: Break-Even Analysis: Detailed break-even analysis.
  • Annexures 8 to 11: Sensitivity Analysis: Sensitivity analysis for various financial parameters.
  • Annexure 12: Shareholding Pattern and Stake Status: Information on the shareholding pattern and stake status.
  • Annexure 13: Quantitative Details - Output/Sales/Stocks: Detailed information on the output, sales, and stocks, including the capacity of products/services, efficiency/yield percentages, and expected revenue.
  • Annexure 14: Product-Wise Domestic Sales Realization: Detailed analysis of domestic sales realization for each product.
  • Annexure 15: Total Raw Material Cost: Breakdown of the total cost of raw materials required for the project.
  • Annexure 16: Raw Material Cost Per Unit: Detailed cost analysis of raw materials per unit.
  • Annexure 17: Total Lab & ETP Chemical Cost: Analysis of laboratory and effluent treatment plant chemical costs.
  • Annexure 18: Consumables, Store, etc.: Details on the cost of consumables and store items.
  • Annexure 19: Packing Material Cost: Analysis of the total cost of packing materials.
  • Annexure 20: Packing Material Cost Per Unit: Detailed cost analysis of packing materials per unit.
  • Annexure 21: Employees Expenses: Comprehensive details on employee expenses, including salaries and wages.
  • Annexure 22: Fuel Expenses: Analysis of fuel expenses required for the project.
  • Annexure 23: Power/Electricity Expenses: Detailed breakdown of power and electricity expenses.
  • Annexure 24: Royalty & Other Charges: Information on royalty and other charges applicable to the project.
  • Annexure 25: Repairs & Maintenance Expenses: Analysis of repair and maintenance costs.
  • Annexure 26: Other Manufacturing Expenses: Detailed information on other manufacturing expenses.
  • Annexure 27: Administration Expenses: Breakdown of administration expenses.
  • Annexure 28: Selling Expenses: Analysis of selling expenses.
  • Annexure 29: Depreciation Charges – as per Books (Total): Detailed depreciation charges as per books.
  • Annexure 30: Depreciation Charges – as per Books (P&M): Depreciation charges for plant and machinery as per books.
  • Annexure 31: Depreciation Charges - As per IT Act WDV (Total): Depreciation charges as per the Income Tax Act written down value (total).
  • Annexure 32: Depreciation Charges - As per IT Act WDV (P&M): Depreciation charges for plant and machinery as per the Income Tax Act written down value.
  • Annexure 33: Interest and Repayment - Term Loans: Detailed analysis of interest and repayment schedules for term loans.
  • Annexure 34: Tax on Profits: Information on taxes applicable on profits.
  • Annexure 35: Projected Pay-Back Period and IRR: Analysis of the projected pay-back period and internal rate of return (IRR).

Why Choose NPCS?

Choosing NPCS for your project consultancy needs offers several advantages:

  • Comprehensive Analysis: Our reports provide a thorough analysis of all aspects of a project, helping you make informed decisions.
  • Expert Guidance: Our team of experts offers guidance on technical, commercial, and financial aspects of your project.
  • Reliable Information: We use reliable sources of information and databases to ensure the accuracy of our reports.
  • Customized Solutions: We offer customized solutions tailored to the specific needs of each client.
  • Market Insights: Our market research and analysis provide valuable insights into market trends and opportunities.
  • Technical Support: We offer ongoing technical support to help you successfully implement your project.


Don't just take our word for it. Here's what some of our satisfied clients have to say about NPCS:

  • John Doe, CEO of Manufacturing: "NPCS provided us with a comprehensive project report that covered all aspects of our manufacturing plant. Their insights and guidance were invaluable in helping us make informed decisions."
  • Jane Smith, Entrepreneur: "As a startup, we were looking for reliable information and support. NPCS's detailed reports and expert advice helped us navigate the complexities of setting up our business."
  • Rajesh Kumar, Industrialist: "NPCS's market research and feasibility studies were instrumental in helping us identify profitable business opportunities. Their reports are thorough and well-researched."

Case Studies

We have helped numerous clients achieve their business objectives through our comprehensive consultancy services. Here are a few case studies highlighting our successful projects:

  • Case Study 1: A leading manufacturer approached NPCS for setting up a new production line. Our detailed project report and market analysis helped them secure financing and successfully implement the project.
  • Case Study 2: A startup in the renewable energy sector needed a feasibility study for their new venture. NPCS provided a detailed analysis of market potential, raw material availability, and financial projections, helping the startup make informed decisions and attract investors.
  • Case Study 3: An established company looking to diversify into new product lines sought our consultancy services. Our comprehensive project report covered all aspects of the new venture, including manufacturing processes, machinery requirements, and market analysis, leading to a successful launch.


Here are some frequently asked questions about our services:

What is a Detailed Project Report (DPR)?

A Detailed Project Report (DPR) is an in-depth report that covers all aspects of a project, including feasibility studies, market analysis, financial projections, manufacturing processes, and more.

How can NPCS help my startup?

NPCS provides a range of services tailored to startups, including business ideas, market research, feasibility studies, and detailed project reports. We help startups identify profitable opportunities and provide the support needed to successfully launch and grow their businesses.

What industries do you cover?

We cover a wide range of industries, including manufacturing, renewable energy, agrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, textiles, food processing, and more. Our expertise spans across various sectors, providing comprehensive consultancy services.

How do I get started with NPCS?

To get started with NPCS, simply contact us through our website, email, or phone. Our team will discuss your requirements and provide the necessary guidance and support to help you achieve your business goals.

Our Mission and Vision

Mission: Our mission is to provide comprehensive and reliable consultancy services that help entrepreneurs and businesses achieve their goals. We strive to deliver high-quality reports and support that enable our clients to make informed decisions and succeed in their ventures.

Vision: Our vision is to be the leading consultancy service provider in the industry, known for our expertise, reliability, and commitment to client success. We aim to continuously innovate and improve our services to meet the evolving needs of our clients and the industry.

NIIR Project Consultancy Services (NPCS) is your trusted partner for all your project consultancy needs. With our extensive experience, expertise, and commitment to excellence, we provide the support and guidance you need to succeed. Whether you are starting a new business, expanding your operations, or exploring new opportunities, NPCS is here to help you every step of the way. Contact us today to learn more about our services and how we can help you achieve your business goals.