Handbook on Printing Technology (Offset, Flexo, Gravure, Screen, Digital, 3D Printing with Book Binding and CTP) 4th Revised Edition ( ) ( Best Seller ) ( ) ( ) ( )
Author NIIR Board of Consultants & Engineers ISBN 9788194099505
Code ENI73 Format Paperback
Price: Rs 1675   1675 US$ 45   45
Pages: 616 Published 2019
Publisher Asia Pacific Business Press Inc.
Usually Ships within 5 days

Printing is a process for reproducing text and image, typically with ink on paper using a printing press. It is often carried out as a large-scale industrial process, and is an essential part of publishing and transaction printing. Modern technology is radically changing the way publications are printed, inventoried and distributed. Printing technology market is growing, due to technological proliferation along with increasing applications of commercial printing across end users.

In India, the market for printing technology is at its nascent stage; however offers huge growth opportunities in the coming years. The major factors boosting the growth of offset printing press market are the growth of packaging industry across the globe, increasing demand in graphic applications, the wide range of application in various industry, and industrialization. 3D printing market is estimated to garner $8.6 billion in coming years. The global digital printing packaging market is expected to exceed more than US$ 40.02 billion by 2026 at a CAGR of 13.9%. Computer-to-plate systems are increasingly being combined with all digital prepress and printing processes.

This book is dedicated to the Printing Industry. In this book, the details of printing methods and applications are given. The book throws light on the materials required for the same and the various processes involved. This popular book has been organized to provide readers with a firmer grasp of how printing technologies are revolutionizing the industry.

The major content of the book are principles of contact (impression), principles of noncontact printing, coated grades and commercial printing, tests for gravure printing, tests for letterpress printing, tests for offset printing, screen printing, application of screen printing, offset lithography, planography, materials, tools and equipments, sheetfed offset machines, web offset machines, colour and its reproduction, quality control in printing, flexography, rotogravure, creative frees printer, shaftless spearheads expansion, digital printing, 3D printing, 3D printing machinery, book binding, computer-to-plate (ctp) and photographs of machinery with suppliers contact details.

A total guide to manufacturing and entrepreneurial success in one of today's most printing industry. This book is one-stop guide to one of the fastest growing sectors of the printing industry, where opportunities abound for manufacturers, retailers, and entrepreneurs. This is the only complete handbook on the commercial production of printing products. It serves up a feast of how-to information, from concept to purchasing equipment.



   Four Major Printing Processes

   Relief Printing Process

   The Process

   Letter Press Printing Process

   Plano Graphic


   The Advantages of Offset Printing Include

   Screen Printing Process

   Other Printing Methods

   Digital Printing

   Paper for Printing


   Printing (Press Operation)

   Colour Printing

   How a Printing Press Works

   The Latest Technologies in Printing Industry

   Digital Inkjet Printing

   3D Printing Rise

   Software Innovations

   Hybrid Print Technologies

   Efficient Technology

   Special Printing Technologies

   Basic Principles of Hybrid Printing System

   Hybrid Printing System Concepts of Combining Conventional Printing Technologies

   Hybrid Printing Systems Combining NIP Technologies

   Hybrid Printing Systems Combining Conventional and NIP Technologies

   Hybrid Printing Systems Combining Computer to Press/Direct Imaging with NIP Technologies

   Hybrid Printing Systems Combining Conventional Printing Technologies with Computer to Press Technologies

   Basic Principles of Waterless Offset Printing

   Advantages/Merits of Waterless Printing

   Qualitative Advantages

   Production Advantages

   Ecological Advantages

   Basic Principle of Digital Printing

   Flow Chart of Digital Composition of a Printed Page

   Direct Imaging (with master)

   Computer to Print (without master)

   Scope and Job suitability of Digital Printing Process

   Digital Printing has a very bright future because

   Digital Printing is Suitable for

   Basic Principle of Direct Imaging

   Once Imagebale Master (Plate Imaging)

   Re-imagebale Master (Surface Imaging)




   Printing Methods       

   The Printing System  

   Preparatory Sections  

   Halftone Photography



   Binding and Finishing           

   Inks for Letterpress and Lithography  

   Speciality Printing     



   Impactless printing system for variable printing



   Coated and Commercial Papers          

   Coating Methods       

   Coating Materials      


   Coated Paper Properties and Use         



   Print Smoothness      

   Gravure Print Testing




   Surface Strength       

   Water Resistance       

   Mechanical Properties

   Web Runnability


   Select Correct Screen Printing Fabric  

   An Antistatic Stencil Mesh     

   Screen Printing Frames          

   Stretching Equipment

   Correct Stretching     


   The Manufacture of Diapositives        


   The Diapositive         


   Screen Printing Accessories    


   Chemicals Used and Formulations     

   Common Faults in Screen Printing     

   Printing Unit 

   Automatic Screen Printing Machine    

   Screen Printing on Different Surfaces 

   Inks for Screen Printing         


   Printing Processes     

   Origin and History of Lithography     

   Job Planning 

   Evolution of Offset Printing   

   Offset Machine Construction 

   Pre-Make Ready and Make Ready       

   Setting the Machine for Operation     

   Small Offset  

   Running Problems     




   Origin of Planography

   Principle of Planographic Printing      

   Direct Printing Process          

   Offset Printing Process           

   Working Process        


   Lithographic varnish 



   French Chalk






   Dampening Cloth      


   Tools and Equipments


   Ink Knife       


   Proofing Devices        

   Mechanical Features  

   Automatic Proof Presses402

   Qualities of a Good Proof       


    Names of the machines         

    Mechanical Features 


    Sheet feeding mechanism      

    Sheet board  

    Functions of blowers

    Functions of the blower foot 

    Sheet lifting and forwarding  

    Sheet Controls         

    Sheet Register          

    Sheet Insertion and Transfer 

    Inking System          

    Distribution System 

    Multiroll System      

    Wash-up device        

    Adjustment of Rollers           

    Different Dampening Systems           

    Cleaning of Dampeners         

    Construction of the machine 

    Working on the cleaning machine     

    Plate Cylinder          

    Blanket Cylinder      

    Impression Cylinder  

    Adjustment of Cylinders       

    Advantages of Both Principles           

    Delivery Mechanism 

    Anti-setoff Spray      

    Miscellaneous Operations     


    Driving Mechanism  

    Printing Units          

    Main Parts of Printing Unit   

    Inking System          

    Delivery Unit

    Folding Unit

    Ancillary Operations by Delivery Unit


    Terminology Related to Colour          

    Mixing and Matching of Colors         

    Sequence of Colours in Printing        


    Before Printing         

    During Printing        

    After Printing           



    Flexographic Platemaking     

    Photochemical Change         

    Rotary Principle       

    Rubber Plates           


    Paper and Board       




    Digital Printing

    Important Things We Should Know About Digital Printing

    Types of Digital Printing

    1. Inkjet Printer

    2. Laser Printer

    Important Features of Laser Printer

    Advantages of Digital Printing

    Benefits of Digital Printing Design & Printing

    1. Cheaper Printing

    2. High quality

    Difference between Screen Printing and Digital Printing

    Screen Printing

    Digital Printing

    Comparison between Digital Printing and Press Printing

    Digital Printing

    Press Printing

20. 3D PRINTING          


    History of 3D Printing

    How Does 3D Printing Work?


    3D Printing Applications

    1. Medical and Dental

    2. Aerospace

    Complex Designs

    Weight Reduction

    Improved Strength and Durability

    Major Savings

    3. Automotive

    4. Jewellery

    5. Art/Design/Sculpture

    6. Architecture

    7. Fashion

    8. Food

    Benefits of 3D Printing

    Advantages of 3D Printing in Manufacturing

    1. 3-D Printers are Becoming More Affordable

    2. Quicker Turnaround Times for Prototyping

    3. Quicker Product Launches

    4. Competitive Advantage

    5. Reduction in Manufacturing Errors

    6. Complex Geometries

    7. Mass Customization

    8. Less Tooling

    9. Fewer Costs

    10. Environmentally Friendly

        Benefits of 3D Printing in Healthcare

            What Materials do 3D Printers Use?

            1. Plastics

            (a) Nylon (Polyamide)


            (b) PLA Filament


            (c) ABS Filament


            (d) PVA Filament

            2. Powders

            3. Resins


            4. Other Materials

            How do the Different 3D Printing Technologies Work?

            1. Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM)

            How does FDM Work?

            Materials for FDM

            ABS (Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene)

            ABSi (Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene – Biocompatible)

            ABS-M30 (Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene)

            ABS-M30i (Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene – Biocompatible)

            PC (Polycarbonate)

            ABS-ESD7 (Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene – Static-Dissipative)

            PC-ABS (Polycarbonate ABS)

            PC-ISO (Polycarbonate ISO)      

            Ultem 9085

            2. Stereolithography and Digital Light Processing (SLA & DLP)

            3. Selective Laser Sintering (SLS)

            4. Material Jetting (PolyJet and MultiJet Modeling)

            5. Binder Jetting

            6. Metal Printing (Selective Laser Melting and Electron Beam Melting)

            Electron Beam Melting


            Selective Laser Melting Applications

            7. PolyJet Photopolymer

            Benefits of Polyjet

            Realistic Finish

            Greater Choices

            Multiple Materials and Colors

            Polyjet Materials

            1. Digital Materials

            2. Digital ABS

            3. High Temperature

            Wide Range of Applications

            4. Transparent

            3D Print Clear and Tinted Prototypes

            3D Printing With Transparent Material

            3D Print Translucent Shades and Patterns

            Wide Range of Applications

            5. Rigid Opaque

            6. Polypropylene-like

            3D Print Tough, Flexible Models

            7. Bio-compatible

            3D Print Medical Devices

            3D Printing With Bio-compatible Material

            8. Rubber-like

            3D Print Flexible, Soft-touch Models

            3D Printing With Rubber-like Material

            8. Syringe Extrusion

            9. Other Methods

            3D Printing is a Game Changer


    Airwolf AW3D HD

    SLA 3D Printing Machine

    3D Printing Machine

    Makerbot Replicator

    Dual Head 3D Printer

    Prototyping Machine

    Flashforge Finder

    3D Systems Cube

    3D Jet



    Terms and Techniques

    Cutting & Folding

    Folded Sheet or Section Binding

    Book Binding Methods

    Perfect Binding

    Hardcover/Case Binding

    Saddle Staple (Fold, Staple, Trim) Binding

    Wiro Binding

    Automatic Book Binding Machine

    Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC)

    Perfect Book Binding Machine

    Disc Perfect Binding Machine

    Perfect Binding Line

    Thread Book Sewing Machine Semi Automatic


    CTP Technologies

    Regulatory Requirements

    Plate Development

    Visible Laser Plates Using Silver Halide

    Thermal Laser Plates Using Ablation

    Plate Making Process Steps

    Temperature Control for Computer to Plate Technology


    Platesetter Cooling

    Plate Processor Cooling

    CTP Technology in Offset Printing

    Digital Plate Setter UV CTP Machine




    Single Color Offset Printing Machine

    Two Color Satellite Offset Printing Machine

    Offset Printing with Numbering and Perforating Machine

    Web Offset Printing Machine

    Color Screen Printer

    Flatbed Screen Printer

    Automatic Sheetfed Offset Printing Machine

    Sheetfed Offset Machine

    Mini Offset Printing Machine

    Flexographic Printing Machine

    Label Master Flexographic Printing Press

    Poly Offset Printing Machines

    Prepress Equipments

    Flip Top Printing Down Frame Single/Double Sided Machine

    Instant Start Metal Halide Plate Exposure

    Plate Coating Whirler

    Plate Curing Equipment

    Damper Roller Washer

    Vertical Process Camera

    3M Plate Processor

    Computer-to-Screen Exposure System

    IGP Plate Processor

    Screen CTP System

    Inkjet CTP System (Computer to Plate Machine)

    Rotogravure Printing Machine

    4 Hi Tower (Automatic)

    3 Colour + Stack Unit (Manual)

    Finishing System

    UV Inkjet Digital Printing System

    Perfecting Production System

    Tape Binder

    High Light Color System

    Color Printer

    Digital Press

    Digital Color Press

    Manual Offset Printing Machine



NIIR PROJECT CONSULTANCY SERVICES (NPCS) is a reliable name in the industrial world for offering integrated technical consultancy services. NPCS is manned by engineers, planners, specialists, financial experts, economic analysts and design specialists with extensive experience in the related industries.

Our various services are: Detailed Project Report,  Business Plan for Manufacturing Plant, Start-up Ideas, Business Ideas for Entrepreneurs, Start up Business Opportunities, entrepreneurship projects, Successful Business Plan, Industry Trends, Market Research, Manufacturing Process, Machinery, Raw Materials, project report, Cost and Revenue, Pre-feasibility study for Profitable Manufacturing Business, Project Identification, Project Feasibility and Market Study, Identification of Profitable Industrial Project Opportunities, Business Opportunities, Investment Opportunities for Most Profitable Business in India, Manufacturing Business Ideas, Preparation of Project Profile, Pre-Investment and Pre-Feasibility Study, Market Research Study, Preparation of Techno-Economic Feasibility Report, Identification and Section of Plant, Process, Equipment, General Guidance, Startup Help, Technical and Commercial Counseling for setting up new industrial project and Most Profitable Small Scale Business.

NPCS also publishes varies process technology, technical, reference, self employment and startup books, directory, business and industry database, bankable detailed project report, market research report on various industries, small scale industry and profit making business. Besides being used by manufacturers, industrialists and entrepreneurs, our publications are also used by professionals including project engineers, information services bureau, consultants and project consultancy firms as one of the input in their research.

Our Detailed Project report aims at providing all the critical data required by any entrepreneur vying to venture into Project. While expanding a current business or while venturing into new business, entrepreneurs are often faced with the dilemma of zeroing in on a suitable product/line.


And before diversifying/venturing into any product, wish to study the following aspects of the identified product:

• Good Present/Future Demand
• Export-Import Market Potential
• Raw Material & Manpower Availability
• Project Costs and Payback Period

We at NPCS, through our reliable expertise in the project consultancy and market research field, Provides exhaustive information about the project, which satisfies all the above mentioned requirements and has high growth potential in the markets. And through our report we aim to help you make sound and informed business decision.


The report contains all the data which will help an entrepreneur find answers to questions like:

• Why I should invest in this project?
• What will drive the growth of the product?
• What are the costs involved?
• What will be the market potential?

The report first focuses on enhancing the basic knowledge of the entrepreneur about the main product, by elucidating details like product definition, its uses and applications, industry segmentation as well as an overall overview of the industry sector in India. The report then helps an entrepreneur identify the target customer group of its product. It further helps in making sound investment decision by listing and then elaborating on factors that will contribute to the growth of product consumption in India and also talks about the foreign trade of the product along with the list of top importing and top exporting countries. Report includes graphical representation and forecasts of key data discussed in the above mentioned segment. It further explicates the growth potential of the product.

The report includes other market data like key players in the Industry segment along with their contact information and recent developments. It includes crucial information like raw material requirements, list of machinery and manufacturing process for the plant. Core project financials like plant capacity, costs involved in setting up of project, working capital requirements, projected revenue and profit are further listed in the report.

Reasons for buying the report:

• This report helps you to identify a profitable project for investing or diversifying into by throwing light to crucial areas like industry size, demand of the product and reasons for investing in the product.

• This report provides vital information on the product like its definition, characteristics and segmentation.

• This report helps you market and place the product correctly by identifying the target customer group of the product.

• This report helps you understand the viability of the project by disclosing details like raw materials required, manufacturing process, project costs and snapshot of other project financials.

• The report provides forecasts of key parameters which helps to anticipate the industry performance and make sound business decision.


Our Approach:

• Our research reports broadly cover Indian markets, present analysis, outlook and forecast.

• The market forecasts are developed on the basis of secondary research and are cross-validated through interactions with the industry players. 

• We use reliable sources of information and databases.  And information from such sources is processed by us and included in the report.


Our Market Survey cum Detailed Techno Economic Feasibility Report Contains following information:



Ø  Introduction

·         Project Introduction

·         Project Objective and Strategy

·         Concise History of the Product

·         Properties

·         BIS (Bureau of Indian Standards) Provision & Specification

·         Uses & Applications


Ø  Market Study and Assessment

·         Current Indian Market Scenario

·         Present Market Demand and Supply

·         Estimated Future Market Demand and Forecast

·         Statistics of Import & Export

·         Names & Addresses of Existing Units (Present Players)

·         Market Opportunity


Ø  Raw Material

·         List of Raw Materials

·         Properties of Raw Materials

·         Prescribed Quality of Raw Materials

·         List of Suppliers and Manufacturers


Ø  Personnel (Manpower) Requirements

·         Requirement of Staff & Labor (Skilled and Unskilled) Managerial, Technical, Office Staff and Marketing Personnel


Ø  Plant and Machinery

·         List of Plant & Machinery

·         Miscellaneous Items

·         Appliances & Equipments

·         Laboratory Equipments & Accessories

·         Electrification

·         Electric Load & Water

·         Maintenance Cost

·         Sources of Plant & Machinery (Suppliers and Manufacturers)


Ø  Manufacturing Process and Formulations

·         Detailed Process of Manufacture with Formulation

·         Packaging Required

·         Process Flow Sheet Diagram


Ø  Infrastructure and Utilities

·         Project Location

·         Requirement of Land Area

·         Rates of the Land

·         Built Up Area

·         Construction Schedule

·         Plant Layout and Requirement of Utilities


Project at a Glance

Along with financial details as under:


  •     Assumptions for Profitability workings

  •    Plant Economics

  •    Production Schedule

  •    Land & Building

            Factory Land & Building

            Site Development Expenses

  •    Plant & Machinery

             Indigenous Machineries

            Other Machineries (Miscellaneous, Laboratory etc.)

  •    Other Fixed Assets

            Furniture & Fixtures

            Pre-operative and Preliminary Expenses

            Technical Knowhow

            Provision of Contingencies

  •   Working Capital Requirement Per Month

             Raw Material

            Packing Material

            Lab & ETP Chemical Cost

           Consumable Store

  •   Overheads Required Per Month And Per Annum

         Utilities & Overheads (Power, Water and Fuel Expenses etc.)

             Royalty and Other Charges

            Selling and Distribution Expenses

  •    Salary and Wages

  •    Turnover Per Annum

  •   Share Capital

            Equity Capital

            Preference Share Capital


  •    Annexure 1:: Cost of Project and Means of Finance

  •    Annexure 2::  Profitability and Net Cash Accruals


                Expenses/Cost of Products/Services/Items

                Gross Profit

                Financial Charges     

                Total Cost of Sales

                Net Profit After Taxes

                Net Cash Accruals

  •   Annexure 3 :: Assessment of Working Capital requirements

                Current Assets

                Gross Working. Capital

                Current Liabilities

                Net Working Capital

                Working Note for Calculation of Work-in-process

  •    Annexure 4 :: Sources and Disposition of Funds

  •    Annexure 5 :: Projected Balance Sheets

                ROI (Average of Fixed Assets)

                RONW (Average of Share Capital)

                ROI (Average of Total Assets)

  •    Annexure 6 :: Profitability ratios


                Earnings Per Share (EPS)


             Debt Equity Ratio

        Annexure 7   :: Break-Even Analysis

                Variable Cost & Expenses

                Semi-Var./Semi-Fixed Exp.

                Profit Volume Ratio (PVR)

                Fixed Expenses / Cost 


  •   Annexure 8 to 11:: Sensitivity Analysis-Price/Volume

            Resultant N.P.B.T

            Resultant D.S.C.R

   Resultant PV Ratio

   Resultant DER

  Resultant ROI

          Resultant BEP

  •    Annexure 12 :: Shareholding Pattern and Stake Status

        Equity Capital

        Preference Share Capital

  •   Annexure 13 :: Quantitative Details-Output/Sales/Stocks

        Determined Capacity P.A of Products/Services

        Achievable Efficiency/Yield % of Products/Services/Items 

        Net Usable Load/Capacity of Products/Services/Items   

       Expected Sales/ Revenue/ Income of Products/ Services/ Items   

  •    Annexure 14 :: Product wise domestic Sales Realisation

  •    Annexure 15 :: Total Raw Material Cost

  •    Annexure 16 :: Raw Material Cost per unit

  •    Annexure 17 :: Total Lab & ETP Chemical Cost

  •    Annexure 18  :: Consumables, Store etc.,

  •    Annexure 19  :: Packing Material Cost

  •    Annexure 20  :: Packing Material Cost Per Unit

  •    Annexure 21 :: Employees Expenses

  •    Annexure 22 :: Fuel Expenses

  •    Annexure 23 :: Power/Electricity Expenses

  •    Annexure 24 :: Royalty & Other Charges

  •    Annexure 25 :: Repairs & Maintenance Exp.

  •    Annexure 26 :: Other Mfg. Expenses

  •    Annexure 27 :: Administration Expenses

  •    Annexure 28 :: Selling Expenses

  •    Annexure 29 :: Depreciation Charges – as per Books (Total)

  •   Annexure 30   :: Depreciation Charges – as per Books (P & M)

  •   Annexure 31   :: Depreciation Charges - As per IT Act WDV (Total)

  •   Annexure 32   :: Depreciation Charges - As per IT Act WDV (P & M)

  •   Annexure 33   :: Interest and Repayment - Term Loans

  •   Annexure 34   :: Tax on Profits

  •   Annexure 35   ::Projected Pay-Back Period And IRR