Handbook on Printing Technology (Offset, Flexo, Gravure, Screen, Digital, 3D Printing with Book Binding and CTP) 5th Revised Edition ( ) ( Best Seller ) ( ) ( ) ( )
Author NIIR Board of Consultants & Engineers ISBN 9788194099505
Code ENI73 Format Paperback
Price: Rs 1875   1875 US$ 45   45
Pages: 616 Published 2023
Publisher Asia Pacific Business Press Inc.
Usually Ships within 5 days

Printing is a process for reproducing text and image, typically with ink on paper using a printing press. It is often carried out as a large-scale industrial process, and is an essential part of publishing and transaction printing. Modern technology is radically changing the way publications are printed, inventoried and distributed. Printing technology market is growing, due to technological proliferation along with increasing applications of commercial printing across end users.

In India, the market for printing technology is at its nascent stage; however offers huge growth opportunities in the coming years. The major factors boosting the growth of offset printing press market are the growth of packaging industry across the globe, increasing demand in graphic applications, the wide range of application in various industry, and industrialization. 3D printing market is estimated to garner $8.6 billion in coming years. The global digital printing packaging market is expected to exceed more than US$ 40.02 billion by 2026 at a CAGR of 13.9%. Computer-to-plate systems are increasingly being combined with all digital prepress and printing processes.

This book is dedicated to the Printing Industry. In this book, the details of printing methods and applications are given. The book throws light on the materials required for the same and the various processes involved. This popular book has been organized to provide readers with a firmer grasp of how printing technologies are revolutionizing the industry.

The major content of the book are principles of contact (impression), principles of noncontact printing, coated grades and commercial printing, tests for gravure printing, tests for letterpress printing, tests for offset printing, screen printing, application of screen printing, offset lithography, planography, materials, tools and equipments, sheetfed offset machines, web offset machines, colour and its reproduction, quality control in printing, flexography, rotogravure, creative frees printer, shaftless spearheads expansion, digital printing, 3D printing, 3D printing machinery, book binding, computer-to-plate (ctp) and photographs of machinery with suppliers contact details.

A total guide to manufacturing and entrepreneurial success in one of today's most printing industry. This book is one-stop guide to one of the fastest growing sectors of the printing industry, where opportunities abound for manufacturers, retailers, and entrepreneurs. This is the only complete handbook on the commercial production of printing products. It serves up a feast of how-to information, from concept to purchasing equipment.



   1.   Introduction                                                            1


         Four Major Printing Processes

         Relief Printing Process

         The Process

         Letter Press Printing Process

         Plano Graphic


         The Advantages of Offset Printing Include

         Screen Printing Process

         Other Printing Methods

         Digital Printing

         Paper for Printing

   2.   Modern Printing Techniques                              15

         Printing (Press Operation)

         Colour Printing

         How a Printing Press Works

         The Latest Technologies in Printing Industry

         Digital Inkjet Printing

         3D Printing Rise

         Software Innovations

         Hybrid Print Technologies

         Efficient Technology

         Special Printing Technologies

         Basic Principles of Hybrid Printing System

         Hybrid Printing System Concepts of Combining Conventional Printing Technologies

         Hybrid Printing Systems Combining NIP Technologies

         Hybrid Printing Systems Combining Conventional and NIP Technologies

         Hybrid Printing Systems Combining Computer to Press/Direct Imaging with NIP Technologies

         Hybrid Printing Systems Combining Conventional Printing Technologies with Computer to Press Technologies

         Basic Principles of Waterless Offset Printing

         Advantages/Merits of Waterless Printing

         Qualitative Advantages

         Production Advantages

         Ecological Advantages

         Basic Principle of Digital Printing

         Flow Chart of Digital Composition of a Printed Page

         Direct Imaging (with master)

         Computer to Print (without master)

         Scope and Job suitability of Digital Printing Process

         Digital Printing has a very bright future because

         Digital Printing is Suitable for

         Basic Principle of Direct Imaging

         Once Imagebale Master (Plate Imaging)

         Re-imagebale Master (Surface Imaging)

   3.   Principles of Contact (Impression)

         Printing Processes                                               33


         Printing Methods                                                             

         The Printing System                                                        

         Preparatory Sections                                                        

         Halftone Photography                                                      



         Binding and Finishing                                                     

         Inks for Letterpress and Lithography                                

         Speciality Printing                                                           

   4.   Principles of Noncontact Printing                  82


         Impactless printing system for variable printing


   5.   Coated Grades and Commercial Printing      105

         Coated and Commercial Papers                                        

         Coating Methods                                                             

         Coating Materials                                                            


         Coated Paper Properties and Use                                       

   6.   Tests for Gravure Printing                              117


         Print Smoothness                                                            

         Gravure Print Testing                                                      

   7.   Tests for Offset Printing                                 123



         Surface Strength                                                             

         Water Resistance                                                             

         Mechanical Properties                                                      

         Web Runnability

   8.   Screen Printing                                                   130

         Select Correct Screen Printing Fabric                                

         An Antistatic Stencil Mesh                                               

         Screen Printing Frames                                                    

         Stretching Equipment                                                      

         Correct Stretching                                                           


         The Manufacture of Diapositives                                      


         The Diapositive                                                               

   9.   Application of Screen Printing                       177

         Screen Printing Accessories                                              


         Chemicals Used and Formulations                                   

         Common Faults in Screen Printing                                   

         Printing Unit                                                                   

         Automatic Screen Printing Machine                                  

         Screen Printing on Different Surfaces                               

         Inks for Screen Printing                                                   

10.   Offset Lithography                                            218

         Printing Processes                                                           

         Origin and History of Lithography                                   

         Job Planning                                                                   

         Evolution of Offset Printing                                             

         Offset Machine Construction                                           

         Pre-Make Ready and Make Ready                                     

         Setting the Machine for Operation                                   

         Small Offset                                                                    

         Running Problems                                                           



11.   Planography                                                         257

         Origin of Planography                                                     

         Principle of Planographic Printing                                    

         Direct Printing Process                                                    

         Offset Printing Process                                                     

         Working Process                                                              

12.   Materials, Tools and Equipments                   266

         Lithographic varnish                                                       



         French Chalk






         Dampening Cloth                                                            


         Tools and Equipments                                                     


         Ink Knife                                                                         


         Proofing Devices                                                              

         Mechanical Features                                                        

         Automatic Proof Presses402

         Qualities of a Good Proof                                                 

13.   Sheetfed Offset Printing                                 282

         Names of the machines                                                    

         Mechanical Features                                                        


         Sheet feeding mechanism                                                 

         Sheet board                                                                     

         Functions of blowers                                                       

         Functions of the blower foot                                            

         Sheet lifting and forwarding                                             

         Sheet Controls                                                                

         Sheet Register                                                                 

         Sheet Insertion and Transfer                                            

         Inking System                                                                 

         Distribution System                                                        

         Multiroll System                                                             

         Wash-up device                                                               

         Adjustment of Rollers                                                      

         Different Dampening Systems                                          

         Cleaning of Dampeners                                                    

         Construction of the machine                                            

         Working on the cleaning machine                                    

         Plate Cylinder                                                                 

         Blanket Cylinder                                                             

         Impression Cylinder                                                         

         Adjustment of Cylinders                                                  

         Advantages of Both Principles                                          

         Delivery Mechanism                                                        

         Anti-setoff Spray                                                             

         Miscellaneous Operations                                                

14.   Web Offset Printing                                           358

         Driving Mechanism                                                         

         Printing Units                                                                 

         Main Parts of Printing Unit                                              

         Inking System                                                                 

         Delivery Unit                                                                   

         Folding Unit                                                                   

         Ancillary Operations by Delivery Unit                               

15.   Colour and its Reproduction                          391

         Terminology Related to Colour                                         

         Mixing and Matching of Colors                                        

         Sequence of Colours in Printing                                       

16.   Quality Control in Printing                             398

         Before Printing                                                                

         During Printing                                                               

         After Printing                                                                  

17.   Flexography                                                         407


         Flexographic Platemaking                                                

         Photochemical Change                                                    

         Rotary Principle                                                              

         Rubber Plates                                                                  


         Paper and Board                                                              

18.   Rotogravure                                                        413

19.   Digital Printing                                                   421


         Digital Printing

         Important Things We Should Know About Digital Printing

         Types of Digital Printing

         1. Inkjet Printer

         2. Laser Printer

         Important Features of Laser Printer

         Advantages of Digital Printing

         Benefits of Digital Printing Design & Printing

         1. Cheaper Printing

         2. High quality

         Difference between Screen Printing and Digital Printing

         Screen Printing

         Digital Printing

         Comparison between Digital Printing and Press Printing

         Digital Printing

         Press Printing

20.   3D Printing                                                            438


         History of 3D Printing

         How Does 3D Printing Work?


         3D Printing Applications

         1. Medical and Dental

         2. Aerospace

         Complex Designs

         Weight Reduction

         Improved Strength and Durability

         Major Savings

         3. Automotive

         4. Jewellery

         5. Art/Design/Sculpture

         6. Architecture

         7. Fashion

         8. Food

         Benefits of 3D Printing

         Advantages of 3D Printing in Manufacturing

         1. 3-D Printers are Becoming More Affordable

         2. Quicker Turnaround Times for Prototyping

         3. Quicker Product Launches

         4. Competitive Advantage

         5. Reduction in Manufacturing Errors

         6. Complex Geometries

         7. Mass Customization

         8. Less Tooling

         9. Fewer Costs

         10. Environmentally Friendly

         Benefits of 3D Printing in Healthcare

         What Materials do 3D Printers Use?

         1. Plastics

         (a) Nylon (Polyamide)


         (b) PLA Filament


         (c) ABS Filament


         (d) PVA Filament

         2. Powders

         3. Resins


         4. Other Materials

         How do the Different 3D Printing Technologies Work?

         1. Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM)

         How does FDM Work?

         Materials for FDM

         ABS (Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene)

         ABSi (Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene – Biocompatible)

         ABS-M30 (Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene)

         ABS-M30i (Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene – Biocompatible)

         PC (Polycarbonate)

         ABS-ESD7 (Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene – Static-Dissipative)

         PC-ABS (Polycarbonate ABS)

         PC-ISO (Polycarbonate ISO)                                             

         Ultem 9085

         2. Stereolithography and Digital Light Processing (SLA & DLP)

         3. Selective Laser Sintering (SLS)

         4. Material Jetting (PolyJet and MultiJet Modeling)

         5. Binder Jetting

         6. Metal Printing (Selective Laser Melting and Electron Beam         Melting)

         Electron Beam Melting


         Selective Laser Melting Applications

         7. PolyJet Photopolymer

         Benefits of Polyjet

         Realistic Finish

         Greater Choices

         Multiple Materials and Colors

         Polyjet Materials

         1. Digital Materials

         2. Digital ABS

         3. High Temperature

         Wide Range of Applications

         4. Transparent

         3D Print Clear and Tinted Prototypes

         3D Printing With Transparent Material

         3D Print Translucent Shades and Patterns

         Wide Range of Applications

         5. Rigid Opaque

         6. Polypropylene-like

         3D Print Tough, Flexible Models

         7. Bio-compatible

         3D Print Medical Devices

         3D Printing With Bio-compatible Material

         8. Rubber-like

         3D Print Flexible, Soft-touch Models

         3D Printing With Rubber-like Material

         8. Syringe Extrusion

         9. Other Methods

         3D Printing is a Game Changer

21.   3D Printing Machinery                                        491

         Airwolf AW3D HD

         SLA 3D Printing Machine

         3D Printing Machine

         Makerbot Replicator

         Dual Head 3D Printer

         Prototyping Machine

         Flashforge Finder

         3D Systems Cube

         3D Jet


22.   Book Binding                                                         501

         Terms and Techniques

         Cutting & Folding

         Folded Sheet or Section Binding

         Book Binding Methods

         Perfect Binding

         Hardcover/Case Binding

         Saddle Staple (Fold, Staple, Trim) Binding

         Wiro Binding

         Automatic Book Binding Machine

         Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC)

         Perfect Book Binding Machine

         Disc Perfect Binding Machine

         Perfect Binding Line

         Thread Book Sewing Machine Semi Automatic

23.   Computer-To-Plate (CTP)                                     513

         CTP Technologies

         Regulatory Requirements

         Plate Development

         Visible Laser Plates Using Silver Halide

         Thermal Laser Plates Using Ablation

         Plate Making Process Steps

         Temperature Control for Computer to Plate Technology


         Platesetter Cooling

         Plate Processor Cooling

         CTP Technology in Offset Printing

         Digital Plate Setter UV CTP Machine

24.   Process Flow Diagrams & Layouts                  527

25.   Photographs of Machinery with Supplier’s

         Contact Details                                                   549

         Single Color Offset Printing Machine

         Two Color Satellite Offset Printing Machine

         Offset Printing with Numbering and Perforating Machine

         Web Offset Printing Machine

         Color Screen Printer

         Flatbed Screen Printer

         Automatic Sheetfed Offset Printing Machine

         Sheetfed Offset Machine

         Mini Offset Printing Machine

         Flexographic Printing Machine

         Label Master Flexographic Printing Press

         Poly Offset Printing Machines

         Prepress Equipments

         Flip Top Printing Down Frame Single/Double Sided Machine

         Instant Start Metal Halide Plate Exposure

         Plate Coating Whirler

         Plate Curing Equipment

         Damper Roller Washer

         Vertical Process Camera

         3M Plate Processor

         Computer-to-Screen Exposure System

         IGP Plate Processor

         Screen CTP System

         Inkjet CTP System (Computer to Plate Machine)

         Rotogravure Printing Machine

         4 Hi Tower (Automatic)

         3 Colour + Stack Unit (Manual)

         Finishing System

         UV Inkjet Digital Printing System

         Perfecting Production System

         Tape Binder

         High Light Color System

         Color Printer

         Digital Press

         Digital Color Press

         Manual Offset Printing Machine

         Rotogravure Printing Machine

         Black and White Digital Print Production System

         Digital Printing Machine

         Paper Binding Machine




NIIR PROJECT CONSULTANCY SERVICES (NPCS) is a reliable name in the industrial world for offering integrated technical consultancy services. NPCS is manned by engineers, planners, specialists, financial experts, economic analysts and design specialists with extensive experience in the related industries.

Our various services are: Detailed Project Report,  Business Plan for Manufacturing Plant, Start-up Ideas, Business Ideas for Entrepreneurs, Start up Business Opportunities, entrepreneurship projects, Successful Business Plan, Industry Trends, Market Research, Manufacturing Process, Machinery, Raw Materials, project report, Cost and Revenue, Pre-feasibility study for Profitable Manufacturing Business, Project Identification, Project Feasibility and Market Study, Identification of Profitable Industrial Project Opportunities, Business Opportunities, Investment Opportunities for Most Profitable Business in India, Manufacturing Business Ideas, Preparation of Project Profile, Pre-Investment and Pre-Feasibility Study, Market Research Study, Preparation of Techno-Economic Feasibility Report, Identification and Section of Plant, Process, Equipment, General Guidance, Startup Help, Technical and Commercial Counseling for setting up new industrial project and Most Profitable Small Scale Business.

NPCS also publishes varies process technology, technical, reference, self employment and startup books, directory, business and industry database, bankable detailed project report, market research report on various industries, small scale industry and profit making business. Besides being used by manufacturers, industrialists and entrepreneurs, our publications are also used by professionals including project engineers, information services bureau, consultants and project consultancy firms as one of the input in their research.

Our Detailed Project report aims at providing all the critical data required by any entrepreneur vying to venture into Project. While expanding a current business or while venturing into new business, entrepreneurs are often faced with the dilemma of zeroing in on a suitable product/line.


And before diversifying/venturing into any product, wish to study the following aspects of the identified product:

• Good Present/Future Demand
• Export-Import Market Potential
• Raw Material & Manpower Availability
• Project Costs and Payback Period

We at NPCS, through our reliable expertise in the project consultancy and market research field, Provides exhaustive information about the project, which satisfies all the above mentioned requirements and has high growth potential in the markets. And through our report we aim to help you make sound and informed business decision.


The report contains all the data which will help an entrepreneur find answers to questions like:

• Why I should invest in this project?
• What will drive the growth of the product?
• What are the costs involved?
• What will be the market potential?

The report first focuses on enhancing the basic knowledge of the entrepreneur about the main product, by elucidating details like product definition, its uses and applications, industry segmentation as well as an overall overview of the industry sector in India. The report then helps an entrepreneur identify the target customer group of its product. It further helps in making sound investment decision by listing and then elaborating on factors that will contribute to the growth of product consumption in India and also talks about the foreign trade of the product along with the list of top importing and top exporting countries. Report includes graphical representation and forecasts of key data discussed in the above mentioned segment. It further explicates the growth potential of the product.

The report includes other market data like key players in the Industry segment along with their contact information and recent developments. It includes crucial information like raw material requirements, list of machinery and manufacturing process for the plant. Core project financials like plant capacity, costs involved in setting up of project, working capital requirements, projected revenue and profit are further listed in the report.

Reasons for buying the report:

• This report helps you to identify a profitable project for investing or diversifying into by throwing light to crucial areas like industry size, demand of the product and reasons for investing in the product.

• This report provides vital information on the product like its definition, characteristics and segmentation.

• This report helps you market and place the product correctly by identifying the target customer group of the product.

• This report helps you understand the viability of the project by disclosing details like raw materials required, manufacturing process, project costs and snapshot of other project financials.

• The report provides forecasts of key parameters which helps to anticipate the industry performance and make sound business decision.


Our Approach:

• Our research reports broadly cover Indian markets, present analysis, outlook and forecast.

• The market forecasts are developed on the basis of secondary research and are cross-validated through interactions with the industry players. 

• We use reliable sources of information and databases.  And information from such sources is processed by us and included in the report.


Our Market Survey cum Detailed Techno Economic Feasibility Report Contains following information:



Ø  Introduction

·         Project Introduction

·         Project Objective and Strategy

·         Concise History of the Product

·         Properties

·         BIS (Bureau of Indian Standards) Provision & Specification

·         Uses & Applications


Ø  Market Study and Assessment

·         Current Indian Market Scenario

·         Present Market Demand and Supply

·         Estimated Future Market Demand and Forecast

·         Statistics of Import & Export

·         Names & Addresses of Existing Units (Present Players)

·         Market Opportunity


Ø  Raw Material

·         List of Raw Materials

·         Properties of Raw Materials

·         Prescribed Quality of Raw Materials

·         List of Suppliers and Manufacturers


Ø  Personnel (Manpower) Requirements

·         Requirement of Staff & Labor (Skilled and Unskilled) Managerial, Technical, Office Staff and Marketing Personnel


Ø  Plant and Machinery

·         List of Plant & Machinery

·         Miscellaneous Items

·         Appliances & Equipments

·         Laboratory Equipments & Accessories

·         Electrification

·         Electric Load & Water

·         Maintenance Cost

·         Sources of Plant & Machinery (Suppliers and Manufacturers)


Ø  Manufacturing Process and Formulations

·         Detailed Process of Manufacture with Formulation

·         Packaging Required

·         Process Flow Sheet Diagram


Ø  Infrastructure and Utilities

·         Project Location

·         Requirement of Land Area

·         Rates of the Land

·         Built Up Area

·         Construction Schedule

·         Plant Layout and Requirement of Utilities


Project at a Glance

Along with financial details as under:


  •     Assumptions for Profitability workings

  •    Plant Economics

  •    Production Schedule

  •    Land & Building

            Factory Land & Building

            Site Development Expenses

  •    Plant & Machinery

             Indigenous Machineries

            Other Machineries (Miscellaneous, Laboratory etc.)

  •    Other Fixed Assets

            Furniture & Fixtures

            Pre-operative and Preliminary Expenses

            Technical Knowhow

            Provision of Contingencies

  •   Working Capital Requirement Per Month

             Raw Material

            Packing Material

            Lab & ETP Chemical Cost

           Consumable Store

  •   Overheads Required Per Month And Per Annum

         Utilities & Overheads (Power, Water and Fuel Expenses etc.)

             Royalty and Other Charges

            Selling and Distribution Expenses

  •    Salary and Wages

  •    Turnover Per Annum

  •   Share Capital

            Equity Capital

            Preference Share Capital


  •    Annexure 1:: Cost of Project and Means of Finance

  •    Annexure 2::  Profitability and Net Cash Accruals


                Expenses/Cost of Products/Services/Items

                Gross Profit

                Financial Charges     

                Total Cost of Sales

                Net Profit After Taxes

                Net Cash Accruals

  •   Annexure 3 :: Assessment of Working Capital requirements

                Current Assets

                Gross Working. Capital

                Current Liabilities

                Net Working Capital

                Working Note for Calculation of Work-in-process

  •    Annexure 4 :: Sources and Disposition of Funds

  •    Annexure 5 :: Projected Balance Sheets

                ROI (Average of Fixed Assets)

                RONW (Average of Share Capital)

                ROI (Average of Total Assets)

  •    Annexure 6 :: Profitability ratios


                Earnings Per Share (EPS)


             Debt Equity Ratio

        Annexure 7   :: Break-Even Analysis

                Variable Cost & Expenses

                Semi-Var./Semi-Fixed Exp.

                Profit Volume Ratio (PVR)

                Fixed Expenses / Cost 


  •   Annexure 8 to 11:: Sensitivity Analysis-Price/Volume

            Resultant N.P.B.T

            Resultant D.S.C.R

   Resultant PV Ratio

   Resultant DER

  Resultant ROI

          Resultant BEP

  •    Annexure 12 :: Shareholding Pattern and Stake Status

        Equity Capital

        Preference Share Capital

  •   Annexure 13 :: Quantitative Details-Output/Sales/Stocks

        Determined Capacity P.A of Products/Services

        Achievable Efficiency/Yield % of Products/Services/Items 

        Net Usable Load/Capacity of Products/Services/Items   

       Expected Sales/ Revenue/ Income of Products/ Services/ Items   

  •    Annexure 14 :: Product wise domestic Sales Realisation

  •    Annexure 15 :: Total Raw Material Cost

  •    Annexure 16 :: Raw Material Cost per unit

  •    Annexure 17 :: Total Lab & ETP Chemical Cost

  •    Annexure 18  :: Consumables, Store etc.,

  •    Annexure 19  :: Packing Material Cost

  •    Annexure 20  :: Packing Material Cost Per Unit

  •    Annexure 21 :: Employees Expenses

  •    Annexure 22 :: Fuel Expenses

  •    Annexure 23 :: Power/Electricity Expenses

  •    Annexure 24 :: Royalty & Other Charges

  •    Annexure 25 :: Repairs & Maintenance Exp.

  •    Annexure 26 :: Other Mfg. Expenses

  •    Annexure 27 :: Administration Expenses

  •    Annexure 28 :: Selling Expenses

  •    Annexure 29 :: Depreciation Charges – as per Books (Total)

  •   Annexure 30   :: Depreciation Charges – as per Books (P & M)

  •   Annexure 31   :: Depreciation Charges - As per IT Act WDV (Total)

  •   Annexure 32   :: Depreciation Charges - As per IT Act WDV (P & M)

  •   Annexure 33   :: Interest and Repayment - Term Loans

  •   Annexure 34   :: Tax on Profits

  •   Annexure 35   ::Projected Pay-Back Period And IRR