Modern Technology of Agro Processing & Agricultural Waste Products ( ) ( Best Seller ) ( ) ( ) ( )
Author NIIR Board ISBN 8186623493
Code ENI11 Format Paperback
Price: Rs 975   975 US$ 26   26
Pages: 504 Published 2001
Publisher National Institute of Industrial Research
Usually Ships within 5 days

Agriculture being a foundation stone for most budding economies, it would be benefiting to know about agro processing and waste management of agriculture produce. The book will act as an encyclopaedia for enriched information on the processing of a variety of products manufactured from agro crops and the waste management of agriculture products. Agro processing can be defined as set of techno economic activities carried out for preservation and treatment of agricultural produce and to make it useful as food, feed, fibre, fuel or manufacturing objects . Therefore, the span of the agro-processing industry covers all operations from the phase of harvest to the phase where the material reaches the end users in the desired form, packaging, quantity, quality and price. Agro processing is a complex process and a clear understanding will certainly help to grow your business. The agro processing is functional to all the produces, originating from agricultural farm, livestock, aqua cultural sources and forests for their preservation, treatment and value-addition to make them serviceable as food, feed, fibre, fuel or industrial raw materials. 

The book deals with varied information on the agro product like Quality Parameters of Dehydrated Fruits and Vegetables, Fruit Specific Preservation Technologies, General Properties of Fruits and Vegetables; Chemical Composition and Nutritional Aspects; Structural Features. Some chapters provide information on the various by products of agro products like Alcohol from Potatoes, Activated Carbon from Saw Dust, Rice Husk and Coconut Shells, Cattle Feed from Molasses, Bio coal Briquettes from Agriculture Cellulosic Waste, Maize Processing for Glucose etc.

The book also gives a touch to the growth of agro processing Industries in India that has experienced expansion during last 5 decades, starting with a handful of facilities to the present level. The book in addition contains the number of products made from agricultural waste. With the current expansion and growth of agro processing and the waste management the book will render you comprehensive information on the project profiles, requirements of basic infrastructure like plant, machinery and raw materials and the addresses of their suppliers. 

Agro processing has recently emerged as the dawn sector of the Indian economy with its enormous prospective for growth and direct assistance to economic aspect especially on employment and income generation. A number of estimates propose that in developed countries, up to 14 per cent of the total labour force is engaged in agro-processing sector directly or indirectly. Though, in India, a meagre number of 3 per cent of the work force finds employment in this sector revealing its underdeveloped state and vast untapped potential for employment. The book will provide you comprehensive information to tap the opportunities available in the sector.

1. Quality Parameters of Dehydrated Fruits and Vegetables

2. Shelf-Life of Maize-Soya Based Ready-to-Eat Extruded Snacks

3. Growth of Agro Processing Industries in India

4. General Properties of Fruits and Vegetables; Chemical Composition and Nutritional Aspects; Structural Features

5. General Procedures for Fruit and Vegetable Preservation

6. Packaging Materials 

7. Fruit Specific Preservation Technologies

8. Castor Oil Derivative Oleo Resin

9. Biocoal Briquettes from Agriculture Cellulosic Waste

10. Modern Bee Keeping

11. Fruit Pulp and Juice Concentrates Mango and Pineapple Pulp and Concentrates

12. Garlic Oil and Powder

13. Banana Wafers

14. Dal / Pulse Mill

15. Cattle Feed from Molasses

16. Herbal Plantation (Medicinal)

17. Mango Plantation

18. Cardamom Oil

19. Ginger Processing (Peeling Drying, Grinding Bleaching of Fresh Ginger)

20. Red Chilli Powder

21. Cashew Nut Shell Liquid and Kernels

22. Coconut Processing Unit

23. Activated Carbon from Saw Dust, Rice Husk and Coconut Shells

24. Atta Chakki Plant

25. Alcohol from Potatoes

26. Fresh / Frozen Potato (Ready to Cook) Peled/Slices (Chips) Potato

27. Maize Processing for Glucose

28. Processing of Food Grains / Pulses and Retail Packaging
Directory Section 





Garlic oil is nothing but an essential oil of the plant family liliaceae. The bulbs or cloves of the common garlic (allium stivum liliaceae) have been used since antiquity, particularly, in mediterranean countries, as a popular prophylactic and curative against all kinds of intestinal ailments.

It is well known fact that whole (undamaged) bulbs of garlic possess a relatively weak odour. However when cut up or crushed, the bulbs emit their well known powerful and obnoxious odour, due to an essential oil consisting chiefly of disulfides.

Garlic oil contains following constituents: -

  1. Allyl-propyl disulphide C6H12S2.
  2. Diallyl disulphide C6H10S2.

And two other sulphur containing compounds. Steam distilling fresh garlic bulbs obtained from 0.1 to 0.2% of volatile oil. Distillation of the whole plant gave from 0.06 to 0.10 percent of oil. the actual mechanism of the reaction, by which the antibacterial principle of garlic, and the disulfides in the volatile oil, originate, was finally elucidated only a few years ago.


Garlic Powder means garlic in powder form, powder form means moistureless or dehydrated form. In other words, Dehydrated Garlic is in grinded form.

Dehydration is defined industrially as drying by artificially produced heat under carefully controlled conditions of temperature, humidity and air flow. The term applied to all dried product regardless to the method of drying.

The garlic powder is manufactured by many large scale and small scale food processing units in India. The technical details and other details are available in our country and a sizable amount of dehydrated garlic is exported to other countries. The dehydrated garlic powder is used in flavoring of many food products and in Ayurvedic medicines.



Garlic oil finds its uses in the following areas:-

  1. Garlic is recommended for internal use as a tonic and stimulant to the stomach.
  2. It is also used as a vermiuge.
  3. It finds its extensive use in spice foods.
  4. Its major use in medicines i.e. it is prescribed to patients with high blood ressure.
  5. It is also used in soaps, canned goods and table sauces.
  6. It is also used in consumer products like soaps. Cosmetics perfumes etc.,


  1. Tomato soups are flavoured with the addition of garlic powder.
  2. Canned soups and meat products use garlic powder for flavoring purposes.
  3. In sausages, hamourger and salami, the dehydrated garlic powder is added to give the typical flavour of garlic.
  4. Certain salad dressings also use garlic powder.
  5. Garlic powder is also used in Ayurvedic medicines for improper digestion, throat troubles and for coughs and bad colds.


It has pungent odour.

It is colorless clear liquid.

Different garlic oils obtained from different garlic have different specific gravity and optical rotation e.g.

1. Specific gravity at 15o -- 1.046 - 1.057
  Optical rotation -- 10o
2. Specific gravity at 15o/15o -- 1.5578-1.5745.
  Refractive index at 20o -- 1.5745.


Garlic IS: 3240-1965
Dehydrated Garlic IS: 5452-1969.


Garlic oil and Powder from raw garlic has an excellent scope for development. This product has a high level of scope, though it's technology is not very old. It's potential still stand to be explored.

At present, this product is in short supply, so there is high demand in the market for garlic oil. Thus, the gap between demand and supply still exists.

Garlic oil is very widely used in spice food and in pharmacuetical industry to produce different medicines. Though, its use was even explored by the primitive people also, particularly in mediterranean countries, as a popular prophylofic and curative against all kins of intestinal ailments, chronic infection of the stomach and dysentry , typhoid fever, cholera etc. Garlic possesses a considerably high curative power; thus a number of attempts had been made to isolate its antibacterial principle. Few years back, the component allicin was identified, which paved the way to process garlic and other garlic oil having a very high scope in the market.

The demand for this product is increasing with a rate 15%, thus, this industry possesses a bright future and allows the new enterpreneures to enter in the field of production of garlic oil by establishing new industries.

All the required raw materials and machineries are indigeneously available in our country. So there is no need to import them, hence saving the foreign exchange of the Government.


M/s KMA Overseas,

5 A/7, Ansari Road,


New Delhi-2.


M/s. Adarsh Suppliers Co.

2/26, Roop Nagar,

Delhi 110 007.


M/s. A.P. Products & Agencies,

Sadak Jung Devadi,

22-5-411-13, Punjeshah,

Hyderabad - 2.


M/s. Bombay Grain Crushing & Spice Mills,

72, Kalyan Street, Dana Bunder,

Mumbai 9.


M/s. Eve's Foods,

5, Kandaswamy Road,

R.A. Puram,

Chennai 28 (TN).


M/s. Rajkumar Lal chand Bhola,

Garam Masala, Dhamtari,

Dist. Raipur (MP).


  1. Washer (mil steel) 1 No.
  2. Crusher Rotary Disc Type 1 No.
  3. Distillation Column with All Auxilliaries,i.e. Condenser, Renoiler etc.
  4. Storage Tank for Garlic Oil (Stainless Steel)
  5. Boiler (coal Fired)
  6. Miscellaneous equipemnts like knives, plates etc.
  7. Roll Breaking Machine (Stainless Steel)
  8. Vibrating Screen (Stainless Steel)
  9. Flaking Rolls (Stainless Steel)
  10. Flow Drier with Belt Conveyor
  11. Hammer Mill
  12. Intermediate Collection Tank


  1. Garlic with leaves etc. obtained from fields 2,21,500 Kg.
  2. Packing Material for Oil & Powder
  3. Lables etc.


The manufacturing process of garlic powder requires following operations.

  1. Washing.
  2. Peeling.
  3. Dehydration.
  4. Pulverization.
  5. Packing.


The fresh garlic as obtained from the vegetable market includes many contaminants like soil, leoues of other vegetables etc. It is very essential to wash the garlic purchased from the market before proceeding to any other process. The washing operation is performed by water spraying or in rotary washers.


The outer leaves of garlic after washing are removed by peeling operation. Water sprayers used in first step assist peeling besides loosening the dirt. Peeling may be affected by steaming, radiant heat, or by heating over gas flames & tumbling in washer flame. the last technique is used for peeling of onion & garlics. In small-scale units, hand operated peeling machine are used for removing the outer layers of garlic. The peeling process is again followed by the washing by spraying water.


Prior to dehydration, another operation is sometimes performed with certain limitations. This process is known as sulphitation. A small amount of sodium sulphate solution is spread on the sliced garlic prior to steaming. Sulphitation greatly prolongs the storage life of vegetables. garlics & onions, but treatment reduces their pungency. Sulphitation also protect the garlic and other vegetables against scorching damage during dehydration.

The modern process of dehydration consists of the removal of moisture from garlic by the application of heat usually in the presence of controlled flow of air. If the air used in drying garlic is allowed to escape into the atmosphere after it passage through the dehydrator, a great deal to heat is lost. The garlic may become overdried if the spent air is recirculated in larger quantities. this condition is avoided to a large extent of the relative humidity of the air is increased sufficiently, which can be done to a large degree by return of some of the spent air. Because of these facts, it is customary in modern dehydrators to provide for recirculation of a portion of air used in drying.


The size reduction of dehydrated garlic will give garlic powder. The product may be ground to give a powder of 80 mesh or coarser size. The grinding operation is performed in a pulverizing machine. After grinding the product, the product is screened to give a dehydrated garlic powder of homogeneous composition & now it is ready for packing.


The packing is convenient in Polythene bags of size 20 cm. width.



The outline of the process is as follows:

First of all undersired materials e.g. soil, leaves, grass etc. are cut off and washed thoroughly with water. After washing garlic bulbs, they are crushed to convert allin to allicin.

Allicin is rather unstable it can be isolated by steamdistillation only at reduced pressure. Allicine possesses an odour characteristic of garlic but is not obnoxious. On steamdistillation at atmospheric pressure allicin is decomposed to diallyl disulfide and other disulfides, which explains why the volatile garlic oil obtained by steam distillation of the bulbs or of the whole plant consist chiefly of the disulfides.

In the fermentation cleanage of allin, the parent substance present in the uncrushed material, allows is therefore only anintermediary product, being finally converted into the obnoxious disulfides so characteristic of the volatile oil.



  1. JAPAN.
  2. U.K.
  3. U.S.A.
  4. CANADA.
  5. FRANCE.
  6. G.F.R.



2. TOTAL LAND AREA REQUIRED 1000 Rs. 7,00,000.00
3. BUILDING Rs. 13,50,000.00
4. PLANT & MACHINERY Rs. 21,25,000.00
5. OTHER FIXED ASSETS Rs. 4,65,000.00
6. FIXED CAPITAL Rs. 46,40,000.00
7. RAW MATERIAL/MONTH Rs. 18,72,000.00
8. WORKING CAPITAL FOR 3 MONTHS Rs. 66,21,300.00
9. COST OF PROJECT Rs. 62,95,325.00
10. TOTAL CAPITAL INVESTMENT Rs. 1,12,61,300.0
11. RATE OF RETURN = 26.44 %
12. B.E.P. = 57.90 %

For comprehensive and exhaustive details on GARLIC OIL AND POWDER ask for Market Survey Cum Detailed Techno Economic Feasibility Report.


106-E, P.B. No. 2162, Kamla Nagar (Nr. Delhi University), Delhi-110007






NIIR PROJECT CONSULTANCY SERVICES (NPCS) is a reliable name in the industrial world for offering integrated technical consultancy services. NPCS is manned by engineers, planners, specialists, financial experts, economic analysts and design specialists with extensive experience in the related industries.

Our various services are: Detailed Project Report,  Business Plan for Manufacturing Plant, Start-up Ideas, Business Ideas for Entrepreneurs, Start up Business Opportunities, entrepreneurship projects, Successful Business Plan, Industry Trends, Market Research, Manufacturing Process, Machinery, Raw Materials, project report, Cost and Revenue, Pre-feasibility study for Profitable Manufacturing Business, Project Identification, Project Feasibility and Market Study, Identification of Profitable Industrial Project Opportunities, Business Opportunities, Investment Opportunities for Most Profitable Business in India, Manufacturing Business Ideas, Preparation of Project Profile, Pre-Investment and Pre-Feasibility Study, Market Research Study, Preparation of Techno-Economic Feasibility Report, Identification and Section of Plant, Process, Equipment, General Guidance, Startup Help, Technical and Commercial Counseling for setting up new industrial project and Most Profitable Small Scale Business.

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• Good Present/Future Demand
• Export-Import Market Potential
• Raw Material & Manpower Availability
• Project Costs and Payback Period

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• What will be the market potential?

The report first focuses on enhancing the basic knowledge of the entrepreneur about the main product, by elucidating details like product definition, its uses and applications, industry segmentation as well as an overall overview of the industry sector in India. The report then helps an entrepreneur identify the target customer group of its product. It further helps in making sound investment decision by listing and then elaborating on factors that will contribute to the growth of product consumption in India and also talks about the foreign trade of the product along with the list of top importing and top exporting countries. Report includes graphical representation and forecasts of key data discussed in the above mentioned segment. It further explicates the growth potential of the product.

The report includes other market data like key players in the Industry segment along with their contact information and recent developments. It includes crucial information like raw material requirements, list of machinery and manufacturing process for the plant. Core project financials like plant capacity, costs involved in setting up of project, working capital requirements, projected revenue and profit are further listed in the report.

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Our Market Survey cum Detailed Techno Economic Feasibility Report Contains following information:



Ø  Introduction

·         Project Introduction

·         Project Objective and Strategy

·         Concise History of the Product

·         Properties

·         BIS (Bureau of Indian Standards) Provision & Specification

·         Uses & Applications


Ø  Market Study and Assessment

·         Current Indian Market Scenario

·         Present Market Demand and Supply

·         Estimated Future Market Demand and Forecast

·         Statistics of Import & Export

·         Names & Addresses of Existing Units (Present Players)

·         Market Opportunity


Ø  Raw Material

·         List of Raw Materials

·         Properties of Raw Materials

·         Prescribed Quality of Raw Materials

·         List of Suppliers and Manufacturers


Ø  Personnel (Manpower) Requirements

·         Requirement of Staff & Labor (Skilled and Unskilled) Managerial, Technical, Office Staff and Marketing Personnel


Ø  Plant and Machinery

·         List of Plant & Machinery

·         Miscellaneous Items

·         Appliances & Equipments

·         Laboratory Equipments & Accessories

·         Electrification

·         Electric Load & Water

·         Maintenance Cost

·         Sources of Plant & Machinery (Suppliers and Manufacturers)


Ø  Manufacturing Process and Formulations

·         Detailed Process of Manufacture with Formulation

·         Packaging Required

·         Process Flow Sheet Diagram


Ø  Infrastructure and Utilities

·         Project Location

·         Requirement of Land Area

·         Rates of the Land

·         Built Up Area

·         Construction Schedule

·         Plant Layout and Requirement of Utilities


Project at a Glance

Along with financial details as under:


  •     Assumptions for Profitability workings

  •    Plant Economics

  •    Production Schedule

  •    Land & Building

            Factory Land & Building

            Site Development Expenses

  •    Plant & Machinery

             Indigenous Machineries

            Other Machineries (Miscellaneous, Laboratory etc.)

  •    Other Fixed Assets

            Furniture & Fixtures

            Pre-operative and Preliminary Expenses

            Technical Knowhow

            Provision of Contingencies

  •   Working Capital Requirement Per Month

             Raw Material

            Packing Material

            Lab & ETP Chemical Cost

           Consumable Store

  •   Overheads Required Per Month And Per Annum

         Utilities & Overheads (Power, Water and Fuel Expenses etc.)

             Royalty and Other Charges

            Selling and Distribution Expenses

  •    Salary and Wages

  •    Turnover Per Annum

  •   Share Capital

            Equity Capital

            Preference Share Capital


  •    Annexure 1:: Cost of Project and Means of Finance

  •    Annexure 2::  Profitability and Net Cash Accruals


                Expenses/Cost of Products/Services/Items

                Gross Profit

                Financial Charges     

                Total Cost of Sales

                Net Profit After Taxes

                Net Cash Accruals

  •   Annexure 3 :: Assessment of Working Capital requirements

                Current Assets

                Gross Working. Capital

                Current Liabilities

                Net Working Capital

                Working Note for Calculation of Work-in-process

  •    Annexure 4 :: Sources and Disposition of Funds

  •    Annexure 5 :: Projected Balance Sheets

                ROI (Average of Fixed Assets)

                RONW (Average of Share Capital)

                ROI (Average of Total Assets)

  •    Annexure 6 :: Profitability ratios


                Earnings Per Share (EPS)


             Debt Equity Ratio

        Annexure 7   :: Break-Even Analysis

                Variable Cost & Expenses

                Semi-Var./Semi-Fixed Exp.

                Profit Volume Ratio (PVR)

                Fixed Expenses / Cost 


  •   Annexure 8 to 11:: Sensitivity Analysis-Price/Volume

            Resultant N.P.B.T

            Resultant D.S.C.R

   Resultant PV Ratio

   Resultant DER

  Resultant ROI

          Resultant BEP

  •    Annexure 12 :: Shareholding Pattern and Stake Status

        Equity Capital

        Preference Share Capital

  •   Annexure 13 :: Quantitative Details-Output/Sales/Stocks

        Determined Capacity P.A of Products/Services

        Achievable Efficiency/Yield % of Products/Services/Items 

        Net Usable Load/Capacity of Products/Services/Items   

       Expected Sales/ Revenue/ Income of Products/ Services/ Items   

  •    Annexure 14 :: Product wise domestic Sales Realisation

  •    Annexure 15 :: Total Raw Material Cost

  •    Annexure 16 :: Raw Material Cost per unit

  •    Annexure 17 :: Total Lab & ETP Chemical Cost

  •    Annexure 18  :: Consumables, Store etc.,

  •    Annexure 19  :: Packing Material Cost

  •    Annexure 20  :: Packing Material Cost Per Unit

  •    Annexure 21 :: Employees Expenses

  •    Annexure 22 :: Fuel Expenses

  •    Annexure 23 :: Power/Electricity Expenses

  •    Annexure 24 :: Royalty & Other Charges

  •    Annexure 25 :: Repairs & Maintenance Exp.

  •    Annexure 26 :: Other Mfg. Expenses

  •    Annexure 27 :: Administration Expenses

  •    Annexure 28 :: Selling Expenses

  •    Annexure 29 :: Depreciation Charges – as per Books (Total)

  •   Annexure 30   :: Depreciation Charges – as per Books (P & M)

  •   Annexure 31   :: Depreciation Charges - As per IT Act WDV (Total)

  •   Annexure 32   :: Depreciation Charges - As per IT Act WDV (P & M)

  •   Annexure 33   :: Interest and Repayment - Term Loans

  •   Annexure 34   :: Tax on Profits

  •   Annexure 35   ::Projected Pay-Back Period And IRR