The Complete Technology Book on Dyes & Dye Intermediates (2nd Edition) ( New Arrival ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
Author Dr. Himadri Panda ISBN 9788194737957
Code NI91 Format Paperback
Price: Rs 1995   1995 US$ 53   53
Pages: 544 Published 2021
Publisher Niir Project Consultancy Services
Usually Ships within 5 days


A natural or synthetic substance used to add a color or to change the color of something. Dyes are the coloring material that color commodities of our day to day use. Dyes are applied everywhere, from Plastic toys for children to that fabrics you wear, from food to wood; hardly there is any industry where dyes are not used commercially.

A dye is a colored substance that has an affinity to the substrate to which it is being applied. It is an ionising and aromatic organic compounds. The dye is generally applied in an aqueous solution, and may require a mordant to improve the fastness of the dye on the fiber.Apart from this, Dye Intermediates also serve as an important raw materials for the Acid, Reactive and Direct Dyes.

Increase in demand for dye intermediates in textile and extensive use of dye intermediates are some factors driving the dye intermediates market. This is prompting companies to increase production of dye intermediates. Additionally, easy availability of raw materials is anticipated to boost the demand for dye intermediates in the near future.

The global dye intermediates market is witnessing technological advancements. Companies are constantly striving to develop new and better ways to manufacture dye intermediates. Development of new manufacturing processes of dye intermediates and applications is estimated to propel the dye intermediates market. However, volatility in prices of raw material is projected to inhibit the market.

The major contents of the Book are Azo Dyes, Reactive Dyes, Anthraquinone Dyes, Acid Dyes, Basic Dyes, Sulfur Dyes, Cyanine Dyes, Sensitizing Dyes, Dye Intermediates, BIS Specifications, Photographs of Machinery With Suppliers Contact Detail, Plant Layout and Process  Flow Chart  & Diagram.

A total guide to manufacturing and entrepreneurial success in one of today’s Dyes & Dye Intermediates industry. This book is one-stop guide to one of the fastest growing sectors of Dyes & Dye Intermediates industry, where opportunities abound for manufacturers, retailers, and entrepreneurs. This is the only complete handbook on Dyes & Dye Intermediates. It serves up a feast of how-to information, from concept to purchasing equipment.



1. The Dyes and Dye Intermediate Industry

What are Dyes and Dye Intermediates?

Classification of Dyes

Prices of Raw Materials

Competition from Other Developing Countries

Unit Processes and Operations

Waste Generation

Liquid Waste

Solid Waste

Gaseous Emissions

The Concept of Cleaner Production

Benefits of Cleaner Production

How to Undertake Cleaner Production:

An Introduction to Cleaner Production Assessments

Cleaner Production Techniques

Technology Modification

Recovery and Recycling

Material Recovery

Recovery of By-products

Product Modification

Energy Conservation

Best Practices in Unit Operations and Processes

Best Practices in Isolation

Best Practices in Filtration

Best Practices in Blending

2. Azo Dyes



Azo Coupling

Oxidative Coupling

Classification of Azo Dyes

Primary Disazo Dyes

Secondary Disazo Dyes

Miscellaneous Disazo Dyes

Types of Azo Dyes : Structures,

Application, Uses

Methods of Manufacture

Manufacture Congo Red




Diazotization of Benzidine

First Coupling

Second Coupling


Third Coupling





Diazotization of Benzidine




Diazotization of Dianisidine



Direct Light Fast Blue 4GH

Plant for Azo Dyes

Important Notes for Diazotization and Coupling

Methods of Analysis of Azo Dyes


Methods of Analysis of Azo Dyes



Nitric Acid Split


Identification of Arylamines in Cleavage Products


Identification of Diamines in Cleavage Products


Blowout Method

Identification of Coupling Components

Assay Methods

Salt Test

Adsorption Chromatography


Application Method

Titanous Chloride Reduction


Preparation of Methylene Blue Solution

Absorption Spectrophotometry


Preparation of Ferric Ammonium Sulfate


Direct Reduction Method

3. Reactive Dyes


Development of Reactive Dyes

Chromophoric System

The Bridging Group

The Reactive System


Reactive Dyes for Cellulosic Materials, Wool & Nylon

Cellulosic Materials

Reactive Systems Based on Nucleophilic Substitution

Reactive Systems Based on Nucleophilic Addition

Reactive System Based on Both

Nucleophilic Addition and Substitution

Dyes that React with Fibers Under Acid Conditions

Polyfunction Fixing Agents from Covalent Bonds

with Both the Dyestuff and the Substrate

Dyes Containing several Reactive Groups


Reactive Systems Based on Nucleophilic Substitution

Reactive Systems Based on Nucleophilic Addition

Reactive Systems Based on Both Nucleophilic

Addition and Substitution

Reactions Involving Disulfide Bonds

Reactions Involving Modified Wool

Reactive Dyes for Nylon

Classification of Reactive Dyes

Vinyl Sulfone Reactive Dyes

Tetrachloro Pyrimidine Dyes

Chemistry of tetrachloropyrimidines

Reactive Dyes Based on Epoxides

Other types of Reactive Dyes

Reactivity of Different Types of Reactive Dyes


Purification of Reactive Dyes

Advantages and Limitations of Reactive Dyes

Fabric Preparation

Washing off

New Development of Reactive Dyes

Kayacelon Reaction Dyes

Cibacron C Dyes

Procion Supra Dyes of (I.C.I.)

Procion HEXL Dyes

Prociline N Dyes

Manufacturing Processes

Acetylation of H Acid

Diazotisation of Tobias Acid

Reactive Dyes with Trichloropyrimidine as

Reactive Group

Reactive Dyes with 2, 3-Dichloroquin-oxaline

-6-Carbonyl Chloride as Reactive Group

Reactive Dyes with Chloroacetyl as

Reactive Group

Reactive Dyes with 6-amino-2-chlorobenzo-thia-zole-5

Sulphonic Acid as Reactive Group

Control Test

Properties of Cynuric Chloride

Chlorosulfonic Acid

Commercial Grades and Specificaion of

Chlorosulphonic Acid

Identification of Reactive Dyes


4. Anthraquinone Dyes

Disperse Dyes


Effect of Dispersing Agents

Levelling Agents


Disperse Dyes in the Dye Bath

Disperse Dyes in the Fibre

Sensitivity to Metal

Solacet Dyes (Water Soluble)

Current Research Work

Manufacturing Processes

Emulsion of Diphenylamine

Diazontisation of Aniline

Acid Pasting and Dispersion

Treatment with Hydrochloric Acid



Aminoanthraquinone Dyes

Anthrarufin and Chrysazin Derivatives

Vat Dyes


Aminoanthraquinone Anthramides


Ring Closure with Aluminium Chloride

Ring Closure with Titanium Tetrachloride

Ring Closure with Sulphuric Acid

Ring Closure with Potassium Hydroxide


Characterisation of Anthrimides and

Anthraquinone Carbozoles

Spectral Differentiation


C = O Stretching and NH Deformation Vibrations

Aminoanthraquinone Indanthrones

Vat Paste

Manufacturing of Vat Paste

Manufacturing Process

Standarisation of Vat Dyestuffs

Identification of Vat Dyes

5. Acid Dyes

Sample Acid Dyes

Mordant Acid Dyes

Premettalized Acid Dyes

Manufacturing Processes

Mordant Dyes

Heat transfer Dyes

Economic Aspects

6. Basic Dyes

Classification of Basic Dyes

Manufacturing Processes

Economic Aspects

Health and Safety Factors


Methods of Analysis


Dyes on Substrates

Assay Methods

Titration Methods

Miscellanous Assay Methods

Application Methods

Determination of Impurities

7. Sulfur Dyes

Chemical Properties

Manufacturing Process


Grain Standarisation



Economic Aspects

Commercial Forms of Sulfur Dyes

Health and Safety Factors


8. Cyanine Dyes


Examples of Nuclie Occuring in Important

Cyanine Dyes

Photophysical Properties

Synthesis of Cyanines and Related Dyes

Reactivity of Cyanine Dyes

Uses and Suppliers

9. Sensitizing Dyes


Sensitization Wavelength and Efficiency

Structural Classes of Spectral Sensitizers

Spectral Sensitization of Silver Halides

Spectral Sensitization of Inorganic and

Organic Solids

Spectral Sensitization of Photoresists,

Photopoly, and Photopolymerization

10. Dye Intermediates


Sources of Raw Material

List of Intermediates, Nomenclature;

Auxiliary Agents

Equipment and Manufacture

Chemistry of Dye Intermediates

Electrophilic Substitution

Transformation of Primary

Substitution Products

Examples of the Most Important

Reactions Sulfonation


Alkeali Fusion

Nucleophilic Replacement of Activated CL

Special Reactions and Rearrangements

Benzidine Rearrangement

Bucherer Reaction

Kolbe-Schmitt Reaction

Project Briefs

Aceto Acetanilide



2-Amino Anthraquinone

1-Hydroxy Anthraquinone

1-Hydroxy Anthraquinone

1:4 Dihidroxy Anthraquinone (Quinizarine)

1:4 Diamino Anthraquinone


2-Methyl Anthraquinone




Manufacturing Process


Benzidinc Derivatines

Chicago Acid and Peri Acid

Cyanuric Chloride

Gamma Acid

H Acid

Laurant’s Acid

Metanilic Acid

Orthanilic Acid

R Salt/R Acid

Sulfanilic Acid

Tobias Acid

Vinyl Sulfone


o-Phenylene Diamine

o-And P-Nitrochlorobezenc


1-Phenyl 3-Methyl 5-Pyrazolonc

1-Amino-2-Naphthol-4-Sulphonic Acid

Schaefeer’s Acid


Alkali Fusion of Amino J-Acid

N-Phenyl J-Acid

11. Photographs of Machinery with

Suppliers Contact Details

Agitator Reaction Vessel

Limpet Coil Reaction Vessels

Reactor Vessel

Melting Tank

Storage Tank


Extractor Machine

Hydro Extractor

Dye Centrifuge Machine

Dyes Filter Press

Dye Ball Mill

Dye Mixing Machine

Dyes Pulverizer Machine


Tray Dryer

Fusion Chamber

Vacuum Distillation Plant

Dyes Packing Machine

Diesel Generator Set

12. Plant Layout and Process

Flow Chart & Diagram




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• Export-Import Market Potential
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• Project Costs and Payback Period

We at NPCS, through our reliable expertise in the project consultancy and market research field, Provides exhaustive information about the project, which satisfies all the above mentioned requirements and has high growth potential in the markets. And through our report we aim to help you make sound and informed business decision.


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The report first focuses on enhancing the basic knowledge of the entrepreneur about the main product, by elucidating details like product definition, its uses and applications, industry segmentation as well as an overall overview of the industry sector in India. The report then helps an entrepreneur identify the target customer group of its product. It further helps in making sound investment decision by listing and then elaborating on factors that will contribute to the growth of product consumption in India and also talks about the foreign trade of the product along with the list of top importing and top exporting countries. Report includes graphical representation and forecasts of key data discussed in the above mentioned segment. It further explicates the growth potential of the product.

The report includes other market data like key players in the Industry segment along with their contact information and recent developments. It includes crucial information like raw material requirements, list of machinery and manufacturing process for the plant. Core project financials like plant capacity, costs involved in setting up of project, working capital requirements, projected revenue and profit are further listed in the report.

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Our Market Survey cum Detailed Techno Economic Feasibility Report Contains following information:



Ø  Introduction

·         Project Introduction

·         Project Objective and Strategy

·         Concise History of the Product

·         Properties

·         BIS (Bureau of Indian Standards) Provision & Specification

·         Uses & Applications


Ø  Market Study and Assessment

·         Current Indian Market Scenario

·         Present Market Demand and Supply

·         Estimated Future Market Demand and Forecast

·         Statistics of Import & Export

·         Names & Addresses of Existing Units (Present Players)

·         Market Opportunity


Ø  Raw Material

·         List of Raw Materials

·         Properties of Raw Materials

·         Prescribed Quality of Raw Materials

·         List of Suppliers and Manufacturers


Ø  Personnel (Manpower) Requirements

·         Requirement of Staff & Labor (Skilled and Unskilled) Managerial, Technical, Office Staff and Marketing Personnel


Ø  Plant and Machinery

·         List of Plant & Machinery

·         Miscellaneous Items

·         Appliances & Equipments

·         Laboratory Equipments & Accessories

·         Electrification

·         Electric Load & Water

·         Maintenance Cost

·         Sources of Plant & Machinery (Suppliers and Manufacturers)


Ø  Manufacturing Process and Formulations

·         Detailed Process of Manufacture with Formulation

·         Packaging Required

·         Process Flow Sheet Diagram


Ø  Infrastructure and Utilities

·         Project Location

·         Requirement of Land Area

·         Rates of the Land

·         Built Up Area

·         Construction Schedule

·         Plant Layout and Requirement of Utilities


Project at a Glance

Along with financial details as under:


  •     Assumptions for Profitability workings

  •    Plant Economics

  •    Production Schedule

  •    Land & Building

            Factory Land & Building

            Site Development Expenses

  •    Plant & Machinery

             Indigenous Machineries

            Other Machineries (Miscellaneous, Laboratory etc.)

  •    Other Fixed Assets

            Furniture & Fixtures

            Pre-operative and Preliminary Expenses

            Technical Knowhow

            Provision of Contingencies

  •   Working Capital Requirement Per Month

             Raw Material

            Packing Material

            Lab & ETP Chemical Cost

           Consumable Store

  •   Overheads Required Per Month And Per Annum

         Utilities & Overheads (Power, Water and Fuel Expenses etc.)

             Royalty and Other Charges

            Selling and Distribution Expenses

  •    Salary and Wages

  •    Turnover Per Annum

  •   Share Capital

            Equity Capital

            Preference Share Capital


  •    Annexure 1:: Cost of Project and Means of Finance

  •    Annexure 2::  Profitability and Net Cash Accruals


                Expenses/Cost of Products/Services/Items

                Gross Profit

                Financial Charges     

                Total Cost of Sales

                Net Profit After Taxes

                Net Cash Accruals

  •   Annexure 3 :: Assessment of Working Capital requirements

                Current Assets

                Gross Working. Capital

                Current Liabilities

                Net Working Capital

                Working Note for Calculation of Work-in-process

  •    Annexure 4 :: Sources and Disposition of Funds

  •    Annexure 5 :: Projected Balance Sheets

                ROI (Average of Fixed Assets)

                RONW (Average of Share Capital)

                ROI (Average of Total Assets)

  •    Annexure 6 :: Profitability ratios


                Earnings Per Share (EPS)


             Debt Equity Ratio

        Annexure 7   :: Break-Even Analysis

                Variable Cost & Expenses

                Semi-Var./Semi-Fixed Exp.

                Profit Volume Ratio (PVR)

                Fixed Expenses / Cost 


  •   Annexure 8 to 11:: Sensitivity Analysis-Price/Volume

            Resultant N.P.B.T

            Resultant D.S.C.R

   Resultant PV Ratio

   Resultant DER

  Resultant ROI

          Resultant BEP

  •    Annexure 12 :: Shareholding Pattern and Stake Status

        Equity Capital

        Preference Share Capital

  •   Annexure 13 :: Quantitative Details-Output/Sales/Stocks

        Determined Capacity P.A of Products/Services

        Achievable Efficiency/Yield % of Products/Services/Items 

        Net Usable Load/Capacity of Products/Services/Items   

       Expected Sales/ Revenue/ Income of Products/ Services/ Items   

  •    Annexure 14 :: Product wise domestic Sales Realisation

  •    Annexure 15 :: Total Raw Material Cost

  •    Annexure 16 :: Raw Material Cost per unit

  •    Annexure 17 :: Total Lab & ETP Chemical Cost

  •    Annexure 18  :: Consumables, Store etc.,

  •    Annexure 19  :: Packing Material Cost

  •    Annexure 20  :: Packing Material Cost Per Unit

  •    Annexure 21 :: Employees Expenses

  •    Annexure 22 :: Fuel Expenses

  •    Annexure 23 :: Power/Electricity Expenses

  •    Annexure 24 :: Royalty & Other Charges

  •    Annexure 25 :: Repairs & Maintenance Exp.

  •    Annexure 26 :: Other Mfg. Expenses

  •    Annexure 27 :: Administration Expenses

  •    Annexure 28 :: Selling Expenses

  •    Annexure 29 :: Depreciation Charges – as per Books (Total)

  •   Annexure 30   :: Depreciation Charges – as per Books (P & M)

  •   Annexure 31   :: Depreciation Charges - As per IT Act WDV (Total)

  •   Annexure 32   :: Depreciation Charges - As per IT Act WDV (P & M)

  •   Annexure 33   :: Interest and Repayment - Term Loans

  •   Annexure 34   :: Tax on Profits

  •   Annexure 35   ::Projected Pay-Back Period And IRR