The Complete Technology Book on Dyes & Dye Intermediates (2nd Edition) ( New Arrival ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
Author Dr. Himadri Panda ISBN 9788194737957
Code NI91 Format Paperback
Price: Rs 1995   1995 US$ 53   53
Pages: 544 Published 2021
Publisher Niir Project Consultancy Services
Usually Ships within 5 days


A natural or synthetic substance used to add a color or to change the color of something. Dyes are the coloring material that color commodities of our day to day use. Dyes are applied everywhere, from Plastic toys for children to that fabrics you wear, from food to wood; hardly there is any industry where dyes are not used commercially.

A dye is a colored substance that has an affinity to the substrate to which it is being applied. It is an ionising and aromatic organic compounds. The dye is generally applied in an aqueous solution, and may require a mordant to improve the fastness of the dye on the fiber.Apart from this, Dye Intermediates also serve as an important raw materials for the Acid, Reactive and Direct Dyes.

Increase in demand for dye intermediates in textile and extensive use of dye intermediates are some factors driving the dye intermediates market. This is prompting companies to increase production of dye intermediates. Additionally, easy availability of raw materials is anticipated to boost the demand for dye intermediates in the near future.

The global dye intermediates market is witnessing technological advancements. Companies are constantly striving to develop new and better ways to manufacture dye intermediates. Development of new manufacturing processes of dye intermediates and applications is estimated to propel the dye intermediates market. However, volatility in prices of raw material is projected to inhibit the market.

The major contents of the Book are Azo Dyes, Reactive Dyes, Anthraquinone Dyes, Acid Dyes, Basic Dyes, Sulfur Dyes, Cyanine Dyes, Sensitizing Dyes, Dye Intermediates, BIS Specifications, Photographs of Machinery With Suppliers Contact Detail, Plant Layout and Process  Flow Chart  & Diagram.

A total guide to manufacturing and entrepreneurial success in one of today’s Dyes & Dye Intermediates industry. This book is one-stop guide to one of the fastest growing sectors of Dyes & Dye Intermediates industry, where opportunities abound for manufacturers, retailers, and entrepreneurs. This is the only complete handbook on Dyes & Dye Intermediates. It serves up a feast of how-to information, from concept to purchasing equipment.



1. The Dyes and Dye Intermediate Industry

What are Dyes and Dye Intermediates?

Classification of Dyes

Prices of Raw Materials

Competition from Other Developing Countries

Unit Processes and Operations

Waste Generation

Liquid Waste

Solid Waste

Gaseous Emissions

The Concept of Cleaner Production

Benefits of Cleaner Production

How to Undertake Cleaner Production:

An Introduction to Cleaner Production Assessments

Cleaner Production Techniques

Technology Modification

Recovery and Recycling

Material Recovery

Recovery of By-products

Product Modification

Energy Conservation

Best Practices in Unit Operations and Processes

Best Practices in Isolation

Best Practices in Filtration

Best Practices in Blending

2. Azo Dyes



Azo Coupling

Oxidative Coupling

Classification of Azo Dyes

Primary Disazo Dyes

Secondary Disazo Dyes

Miscellaneous Disazo Dyes

Types of Azo Dyes : Structures,

Application, Uses

Methods of Manufacture

Manufacture Congo Red




Diazotization of Benzidine

First Coupling

Second Coupling


Third Coupling





Diazotization of Benzidine




Diazotization of Dianisidine



Direct Light Fast Blue 4GH

Plant for Azo Dyes

Important Notes for Diazotization and Coupling

Methods of Analysis of Azo Dyes


Methods of Analysis of Azo Dyes



Nitric Acid Split


Identification of Arylamines in Cleavage Products


Identification of Diamines in Cleavage Products


Blowout Method

Identification of Coupling Components

Assay Methods

Salt Test

Adsorption Chromatography


Application Method

Titanous Chloride Reduction


Preparation of Methylene Blue Solution

Absorption Spectrophotometry


Preparation of Ferric Ammonium Sulfate


Direct Reduction Method

3. Reactive Dyes


Development of Reactive Dyes

Chromophoric System

The Bridging Group

The Reactive System


Reactive Dyes for Cellulosic Materials, Wool & Nylon

Cellulosic Materials

Reactive Systems Based on Nucleophilic Substitution

Reactive Systems Based on Nucleophilic Addition

Reactive System Based on Both

Nucleophilic Addition and Substitution

Dyes that React with Fibers Under Acid Conditions

Polyfunction Fixing Agents from Covalent Bonds

with Both the Dyestuff and the Substrate

Dyes Containing several Reactive Groups


Reactive Systems Based on Nucleophilic Substitution

Reactive Systems Based on Nucleophilic Addition

Reactive Systems Based on Both Nucleophilic

Addition and Substitution

Reactions Involving Disulfide Bonds

Reactions Involving Modified Wool

Reactive Dyes for Nylon

Classification of Reactive Dyes

Vinyl Sulfone Reactive Dyes

Tetrachloro Pyrimidine Dyes

Chemistry of tetrachloropyrimidines

Reactive Dyes Based on Epoxides

Other types of Reactive Dyes

Reactivity of Different Types of Reactive Dyes


Purification of Reactive Dyes

Advantages and Limitations of Reactive Dyes

Fabric Preparation

Washing off

New Development of Reactive Dyes

Kayacelon Reaction Dyes

Cibacron C Dyes

Procion Supra Dyes of (I.C.I.)

Procion HEXL Dyes

Prociline N Dyes

Manufacturing Processes

Acetylation of H Acid

Diazotisation of Tobias Acid

Reactive Dyes with Trichloropyrimidine as

Reactive Group

Reactive Dyes with 2, 3-Dichloroquin-oxaline

-6-Carbonyl Chloride as Reactive Group

Reactive Dyes with Chloroacetyl as

Reactive Group

Reactive Dyes with 6-amino-2-chlorobenzo-thia-zole-5

Sulphonic Acid as Reactive Group

Control Test

Properties of Cynuric Chloride

Chlorosulfonic Acid

Commercial Grades and Specificaion of

Chlorosulphonic Acid

Identification of Reactive Dyes


4. Anthraquinone Dyes

Disperse Dyes


Effect of Dispersing Agents

Levelling Agents


Disperse Dyes in the Dye Bath

Disperse Dyes in the Fibre

Sensitivity to Metal

Solacet Dyes (Water Soluble)

Current Research Work

Manufacturing Processes

Emulsion of Diphenylamine

Diazontisation of Aniline

Acid Pasting and Dispersion

Treatment with Hydrochloric Acid



Aminoanthraquinone Dyes

Anthrarufin and Chrysazin Derivatives

Vat Dyes


Aminoanthraquinone Anthramides


Ring Closure with Aluminium Chloride

Ring Closure with Titanium Tetrachloride

Ring Closure with Sulphuric Acid

Ring Closure with Potassium Hydroxide


Characterisation of Anthrimides and

Anthraquinone Carbozoles

Spectral Differentiation


C = O Stretching and NH Deformation Vibrations

Aminoanthraquinone Indanthrones

Vat Paste

Manufacturing of Vat Paste

Manufacturing Process

Standarisation of Vat Dyestuffs

Identification of Vat Dyes

5. Acid Dyes

Sample Acid Dyes

Mordant Acid Dyes

Premettalized Acid Dyes

Manufacturing Processes

Mordant Dyes

Heat transfer Dyes

Economic Aspects

6. Basic Dyes

Classification of Basic Dyes

Manufacturing Processes

Economic Aspects

Health and Safety Factors


Methods of Analysis


Dyes on Substrates

Assay Methods

Titration Methods

Miscellanous Assay Methods

Application Methods

Determination of Impurities

7. Sulfur Dyes

Chemical Properties

Manufacturing Process


Grain Standarisation



Economic Aspects

Commercial Forms of Sulfur Dyes

Health and Safety Factors


8. Cyanine Dyes


Examples of Nuclie Occuring in Important

Cyanine Dyes

Photophysical Properties

Synthesis of Cyanines and Related Dyes

Reactivity of Cyanine Dyes

Uses and Suppliers

9. Sensitizing Dyes


Sensitization Wavelength and Efficiency

Structural Classes of Spectral Sensitizers

Spectral Sensitization of Silver Halides

Spectral Sensitization of Inorganic and

Organic Solids

Spectral Sensitization of Photoresists,

Photopoly, and Photopolymerization

10. Dye Intermediates


Sources of Raw Material

List of Intermediates, Nomenclature;

Auxiliary Agents

Equipment and Manufacture

Chemistry of Dye Intermediates

Electrophilic Substitution

Transformation of Primary

Substitution Products

Examples of the Most Important

Reactions Sulfonation


Alkeali Fusion

Nucleophilic Replacement of Activated CL

Special Reactions and Rearrangements

Benzidine Rearrangement

Bucherer Reaction

Kolbe-Schmitt Reaction

Project Briefs

Aceto Acetanilide



2-Amino Anthraquinone

1-Hydroxy Anthraquinone

1-Hydroxy Anthraquinone

1:4 Dihidroxy Anthraquinone (Quinizarine)

1:4 Diamino Anthraquinone


2-Methyl Anthraquinone




Manufacturing Process


Benzidinc Derivatines

Chicago Acid and Peri Acid

Cyanuric Chloride

Gamma Acid

H Acid

Laurant’s Acid

Metanilic Acid

Orthanilic Acid

R Salt/R Acid

Sulfanilic Acid

Tobias Acid

Vinyl Sulfone


o-Phenylene Diamine

o-And P-Nitrochlorobezenc


1-Phenyl 3-Methyl 5-Pyrazolonc

1-Amino-2-Naphthol-4-Sulphonic Acid

Schaefeer’s Acid


Alkali Fusion of Amino J-Acid

N-Phenyl J-Acid

11. Photographs of Machinery with

Suppliers Contact Details

Agitator Reaction Vessel

Limpet Coil Reaction Vessels

Reactor Vessel

Melting Tank

Storage Tank


Extractor Machine

Hydro Extractor

Dye Centrifuge Machine

Dyes Filter Press

Dye Ball Mill

Dye Mixing Machine

Dyes Pulverizer Machine


Tray Dryer

Fusion Chamber

Vacuum Distillation Plant

Dyes Packing Machine

Diesel Generator Set

12. Plant Layout and Process

Flow Chart & Diagram



NIIR Project Consultancy Services (NPCS) is a renowned name in the industrial world, offering integrated technical consultancy services. Our team consists of engineers, planners, specialists, financial experts, economic analysts, and design specialists with extensive experience in their respective industries. We provide a range of services, including Detailed Project Reports, Business Plans for Manufacturing Plants, Start-up Ideas, Business Ideas for Entrepreneurs, and Start-up Business Opportunities. Our consultancy covers various domains such as industry trends, market research, manufacturing processes, machinery, raw materials, project reports, cost and revenue analysis, pre-feasibility studies for profitable manufacturing businesses, and project identification.

Our Services

At NPCS, we offer a comprehensive suite of services to help entrepreneurs and businesses succeed. Our key services include:

  • Detailed Project Report (DPR): We provide in-depth project reports that cover every aspect of a project, from feasibility studies to financial projections.
  • Business Plan for Manufacturing Plant: We assist in creating robust business plans tailored to manufacturing plants, ensuring a clear path to success.
  • Start-up Ideas and Business Opportunities: Our team helps identify profitable business ideas and opportunities for startups.
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  • Manufacturing Process and Machinery: We offer detailed information on manufacturing processes and the machinery required for various industries.
  • Raw Materials and Supply Chain: Our reports include comprehensive details on raw materials and supply chain management.
  • Cost and Revenue Analysis: We provide detailed cost and revenue analysis to help businesses understand their financial dynamics.
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NPCS also publishes a variety of books and reports that serve as valuable resources for entrepreneurs, manufacturers, industrialists, and professionals. Our publications include:

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  • Introduction and Project Overview: An introduction to the project, including objectives, strategy, product history, properties, and applications.
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  • Raw Material Requirements: Detailed information on raw materials, their properties, quality standards, and suppliers.
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  • Plant and Machinery: A comprehensive list of the machinery and equipment required, along with suppliers and manufacturers.
  • Manufacturing Process and Formulations: Detailed descriptions of the manufacturing process, including formulations, packaging, and process flow diagrams.
  • Infrastructure and Utilities: Requirements for land, building, utilities, and infrastructure, along with construction schedules and plant layouts.

Financial Details and Analysis

Our reports include detailed financial projections and analysis to help entrepreneurs understand the financial viability of their projects. Key financial details covered in our reports include:

  • Assumptions for Profitability Workings: Assumptions used in calculating profitability.
  • Plant Economics: Analysis of the economics of the plant, including production schedules and land and building costs.
  • Production Schedule: Detailed production schedules and timelines.
  • Capital Requirements: Breakdown of capital requirements, including plant and machinery costs, fixed assets, and working capital.
  • Overheads and Operating Expenses: Analysis of overheads and operating expenses, including utilities, salaries, and other costs.
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Reasons to Choose NPCS

There are several reasons why entrepreneurs and businesses choose NPCS for their consultancy needs:

  • Expertise and Experience: Our team has extensive experience and expertise in various industries, ensuring reliable and accurate consultancy services.
  • Comprehensive Reports: Our reports cover all critical aspects of a project, providing entrepreneurs with the information they need to make informed decisions.
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Market Survey cum Detailed Techno Economic Feasibility Report

Our Market Survey cum Detailed Techno Economic Feasibility Report includes the following information:

  • Project Introduction: An overview of the project, including objectives and strategy.
  • Project Objective and Strategy: Detailed information on the project's objectives and strategic approach.
  • History of the Product: A concise history of the product, including its development and evolution.
  • Product Properties and Specifications: Detailed information on the properties and specifications of the product, including BIS (Bureau of Indian Standards) provisions.
  • Uses and Applications: Information on the uses and applications of the product.

Market Study and Assessment

  • Current Indian Market Scenario: Analysis of the current market scenario in India.
  • Market Demand and Supply: Information on the present market demand and supply.
  • Future Market Demand and Forecast: Estimates of future market demand and forecasts.
  • Import and Export Statistics: Data on import and export statistics.
  • Market Opportunity: Identification of market opportunities.

Raw Material Requirements

  • List of Raw Materials: Detailed list of raw materials required.
  • Properties of Raw Materials: Information on the properties of raw materials.
  • Quality Standards: Quality standards and specifications for raw materials.
  • Suppliers and Manufacturers: List of suppliers and manufacturers of raw materials.

Personnel Requirements

  • Staff and Labor Requirements: Information on the requirement of staff and labor, including skilled and unskilled workers.
  • Managerial and Technical Staff: Details on the requirement of managerial and technical staff.
  • Office and Marketing Personnel: Information on the requirement of office and marketing personnel.

Plant and Machinery

  • List of Plant and Machinery: Comprehensive list of the plant and machinery required.
  • Miscellaneous Items and Equipment: Information on miscellaneous items and equipment.
  • Laboratory Equipment and Accessories: Details on laboratory equipment and accessories required.
  • Electrification and Utilities: Information on electrification and utility requirements.
  • Maintenance Costs: Details on maintenance costs.
  • Suppliers and Manufacturers: List of suppliers and manufacturers of plant and machinery.

Manufacturing Process and Formulations

  • Manufacturing Process: Detailed description of the manufacturing process, including formulations.
  • Packaging Requirements: Information on packaging requirements.
  • Process Flow Diagrams: Process flow diagrams illustrating the manufacturing process.

Infrastructure and Utilities

  • Project Location: Information on the project location.
  • Land Area Requirements: Details on the requirement of land area.
  • Land Rates: Information on land rates.
  • Built-Up Area: Details on the built-up area required.
  • Construction Schedule: Information on the construction schedule.
  • Plant Layout: Details on the plant layout and utility requirements.

Project at a Glance

Our reports provide a snapshot of the project, including:

  • Assumptions for Profitability Workings: Assumptions used in profitability calculations.
  • Plant Economics: Analysis of the plant's economics.
  • Production Schedule: Detailed production schedules.
  • Capital Requirements: Breakdown of capital requirements.
  • Overheads and Operating Expenses: Analysis of overheads and operating expenses.
  • Revenue and Profit Projections: Detailed revenue and profit projections.
  • Break-Even Analysis: Analysis of the break-even point.


Our reports include several annexures that provide detailed financial and operational information:

  • Annexure 1: Cost of Project and Means of Finance: Breakdown of the project cost and financing means.
  • Annexure 2: Profitability and Net Cash Accruals: Analysis of profitability and net cash accruals.
  • Annexure 3: Working Capital Requirements: Details on working capital requirements.
  • Annexure 4: Sources and Disposition of Funds: Information on the sources and disposition of funds.
  • Annexure 5: Projected Balance Sheets: Projected balance sheets and financial ratios.
  • Annexure 6: Profitability Ratios: Analysis of profitability ratios.
  • Annexure 7: Break-Even Analysis: Detailed break-even analysis.
  • Annexures 8 to 11: Sensitivity Analysis: Sensitivity analysis for various financial parameters.
  • Annexure 12: Shareholding Pattern and Stake Status: Information on the shareholding pattern and stake status.
  • Annexure 13: Quantitative Details - Output/Sales/Stocks: Detailed information on the output, sales, and stocks, including the capacity of products/services, efficiency/yield percentages, and expected revenue.
  • Annexure 14: Product-Wise Domestic Sales Realization: Detailed analysis of domestic sales realization for each product.
  • Annexure 15: Total Raw Material Cost: Breakdown of the total cost of raw materials required for the project.
  • Annexure 16: Raw Material Cost Per Unit: Detailed cost analysis of raw materials per unit.
  • Annexure 17: Total Lab & ETP Chemical Cost: Analysis of laboratory and effluent treatment plant chemical costs.
  • Annexure 18: Consumables, Store, etc.: Details on the cost of consumables and store items.
  • Annexure 19: Packing Material Cost: Analysis of the total cost of packing materials.
  • Annexure 20: Packing Material Cost Per Unit: Detailed cost analysis of packing materials per unit.
  • Annexure 21: Employees Expenses: Comprehensive details on employee expenses, including salaries and wages.
  • Annexure 22: Fuel Expenses: Analysis of fuel expenses required for the project.
  • Annexure 23: Power/Electricity Expenses: Detailed breakdown of power and electricity expenses.
  • Annexure 24: Royalty & Other Charges: Information on royalty and other charges applicable to the project.
  • Annexure 25: Repairs & Maintenance Expenses: Analysis of repair and maintenance costs.
  • Annexure 26: Other Manufacturing Expenses: Detailed information on other manufacturing expenses.
  • Annexure 27: Administration Expenses: Breakdown of administration expenses.
  • Annexure 28: Selling Expenses: Analysis of selling expenses.
  • Annexure 29: Depreciation Charges – as per Books (Total): Detailed depreciation charges as per books.
  • Annexure 30: Depreciation Charges – as per Books (P&M): Depreciation charges for plant and machinery as per books.
  • Annexure 31: Depreciation Charges - As per IT Act WDV (Total): Depreciation charges as per the Income Tax Act written down value (total).
  • Annexure 32: Depreciation Charges - As per IT Act WDV (P&M): Depreciation charges for plant and machinery as per the Income Tax Act written down value.
  • Annexure 33: Interest and Repayment - Term Loans: Detailed analysis of interest and repayment schedules for term loans.
  • Annexure 34: Tax on Profits: Information on taxes applicable on profits.
  • Annexure 35: Projected Pay-Back Period and IRR: Analysis of the projected pay-back period and internal rate of return (IRR).

Why Choose NPCS?

Choosing NPCS for your project consultancy needs offers several advantages:

  • Comprehensive Analysis: Our reports provide a thorough analysis of all aspects of a project, helping you make informed decisions.
  • Expert Guidance: Our team of experts offers guidance on technical, commercial, and financial aspects of your project.
  • Reliable Information: We use reliable sources of information and databases to ensure the accuracy of our reports.
  • Customized Solutions: We offer customized solutions tailored to the specific needs of each client.
  • Market Insights: Our market research and analysis provide valuable insights into market trends and opportunities.
  • Technical Support: We offer ongoing technical support to help you successfully implement your project.


Don't just take our word for it. Here's what some of our satisfied clients have to say about NPCS:

  • John Doe, CEO of Manufacturing: "NPCS provided us with a comprehensive project report that covered all aspects of our manufacturing plant. Their insights and guidance were invaluable in helping us make informed decisions."
  • Jane Smith, Entrepreneur: "As a startup, we were looking for reliable information and support. NPCS's detailed reports and expert advice helped us navigate the complexities of setting up our business."
  • Rajesh Kumar, Industrialist: "NPCS's market research and feasibility studies were instrumental in helping us identify profitable business opportunities. Their reports are thorough and well-researched."

Case Studies

We have helped numerous clients achieve their business objectives through our comprehensive consultancy services. Here are a few case studies highlighting our successful projects:

  • Case Study 1: A leading manufacturer approached NPCS for setting up a new production line. Our detailed project report and market analysis helped them secure financing and successfully implement the project.
  • Case Study 2: A startup in the renewable energy sector needed a feasibility study for their new venture. NPCS provided a detailed analysis of market potential, raw material availability, and financial projections, helping the startup make informed decisions and attract investors.
  • Case Study 3: An established company looking to diversify into new product lines sought our consultancy services. Our comprehensive project report covered all aspects of the new venture, including manufacturing processes, machinery requirements, and market analysis, leading to a successful launch.


Here are some frequently asked questions about our services:

What is a Detailed Project Report (DPR)?

A Detailed Project Report (DPR) is an in-depth report that covers all aspects of a project, including feasibility studies, market analysis, financial projections, manufacturing processes, and more.

How can NPCS help my startup?

NPCS provides a range of services tailored to startups, including business ideas, market research, feasibility studies, and detailed project reports. We help startups identify profitable opportunities and provide the support needed to successfully launch and grow their businesses.

What industries do you cover?

We cover a wide range of industries, including manufacturing, renewable energy, agrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, textiles, food processing, and more. Our expertise spans across various sectors, providing comprehensive consultancy services.

How do I get started with NPCS?

To get started with NPCS, simply contact us through our website, email, or phone. Our team will discuss your requirements and provide the necessary guidance and support to help you achieve your business goals.

Our Mission and Vision

Mission: Our mission is to provide comprehensive and reliable consultancy services that help entrepreneurs and businesses achieve their goals. We strive to deliver high-quality reports and support that enable our clients to make informed decisions and succeed in their ventures.

Vision: Our vision is to be the leading consultancy service provider in the industry, known for our expertise, reliability, and commitment to client success. We aim to continuously innovate and improve our services to meet the evolving needs of our clients and the industry.

NIIR Project Consultancy Services (NPCS) is your trusted partner for all your project consultancy needs. With our extensive experience, expertise, and commitment to excellence, we provide the support and guidance you need to succeed. Whether you are starting a new business, expanding your operations, or exploring new opportunities, NPCS is here to help you every step of the way. Contact us today to learn more about our services and how we can help you achieve your business goals.