Food Packaging Technology Handbook (3rd Revised Edition) ( New Arrival ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
Author NIIR Board of Consultants Engineers ISBN 9788193733981
Code ENI93 Format Paperback
Price: Rs 1895   1895 US$ 51   51
Pages: 528 Published 2020
Publisher Niir Project Consultancy Services
Usually Ships within 5 days

Food Packaging Technology Handbook (3rd Revised Edition) (Biodegradable Films, Materials , Polymers, Aseptic Packaging, Labels and Labelling, Packaging of Cashew Nuts, Dairy Products, Milk, Fish, Meat, Shrimps, Canning of Vegetables, Fruits with details of Machinery and Equipments)


Food packaging technology is primarily concerned with packaging activities regarding protection of food products from biological, physical or chemical agents. With the growth of modern civilization, people are getting more concerned with hygiene and quality of the food.

The packaging industry’s growth has led to greater specialization and sophistication from the point of view of health and environment friendliness of packing material. The demand on the packaging industry is challenging, given the increasing environmental awareness among communities. The food packaging industry is growing at the rate of 22 to 25 per cent per annum. In near future it is going to be a booming industry.

Packaging has played a critical role as a differentiator in promoting brands, especially for packaged food products. With the increase in urbanization and emergence of supermarkets and hypermarkets, differentiating food products through the aesthetic appeal of packaging has become important for food manufacturers. Furthermore, consumers are increasingly paying more attention to the ingredients and contents of the package. This provides an opportunity for the food packaging technology & equipment manufacturers as food manufacturers need to differentiate their products by conveying the benefits of packaging technology on the labels and packets, such as shelf life, the time required for preparing the food, and nutritional contents to the consumers.

Biodegradable packaging is produced using biopolymers, which are molecules often found in living organisms, like cellulose and proteins. This means they can be safely consumed, degrade quickly, and often be created from waste plant products. The main applications of bio-based and biodegradable plastics are currently in (food) packaging, food service ware, (shopping) bags, fibres/nonwovens and agricultural applications. Bio-based drop-in plastics such as bio-PE and bio-PET are identical to fossil-based counterparts and can be used in exactly the same applications.

                The more recently developed bio-based plastics (bio-PE and bio-PET) are also mainly used in food packaging. The increasing awareness of the environmental impact of packaging products and a willingness to replace packaging materials by alternatives with e.g. a lower carbon footprint or made from renewable resources are the main driver for development and the use of these materials.

This book gives comprehensive account of food packaging, which is the most important part to preserve the food for a long time. The present volume has been written primarily for the benefit of new entrepreneurs, technologists, technical libraries and for those who want to diversify in the field of food industry.


1. Introduction





Packaging Systems

Primary Packaging

Secondary Packaging

Tertiary Package

Unit Load

Consumer/Industrial Packaging

Biodegradable Packaging

Development of Bioplastic


Starch Based Plastics (Biodegradable)

Bio-based and Biodegradable Plastics from

Genetically Modified Organisms


2. Biodegradable films for Food Packaging

and Application of Nanotechnology in

Biodegradable Food Packaging

Biodegradable Polymer Films for Food Packaging

Biodegradable Polymers from Biomass Products



Other Materials


Chitin and Chitosan


Advantage and Limitations of Biodegradable


Nanotechnology in Biodegradable Polymer


3. Biodegradable Materials for Food Packaging



Aliphatic Polyesters

Manufacturing Process

Manufacturing Filament Yarn



Melt Spinning

Drawing the Fiber


Manufacturing Staple Fiber

Drawing Tow




Polylactide Aliphatic Copolymer (CPLA)

Polycaprolactone (PCL)

Synthesis and Physicochemical Properties of


Poly (Lactic Acid) (PLA)

PLA Processing


Injection Molding

Injection Stretch Blow Molding

Cast Film and Sheet


Polyurethane Foams

Processing Technology

Fillers for Bio based Packaging Materials

Cellulose Fiber

Wood Fiber

Technical Requirements

Types of Degradable Plastic

Oxo-Biodegradable Plastic

Fossil Resources

Hydro-Biodegradable Plastics


4. Biodegradable Polymers in Food Packaging



Origin and Description of Biobased Polymers


Production Process

Polylactic Acid

Poly (hydroxyalkanoates) (PHAs)

PHAs Production

Polycaprolactone (PCL)

Cellulose and Derivatives


5. Packaging Materials for Processed Foods

Metal Cans

Materials Used in Can Manufacture

The Steel Base

Thickness of Steel Base

Mechanical Properties

Basic Types of Metal Plate

Surface Finish

The Tin Coating

Marking of Differentially-Coated Plate

K Grade Tinplate

Grading of Tinplate


Tin-Free-Steel (TFS) Sheets

Tinplate and Its Application

Aluminium Cans

Manufacture of Three-piece Cans

Side Seam Welding

Types of Side Seam Welders

Other Types of Side Seams

Can Ends

Manufacture of Ends

Flanging, Beading and Double Seaming

Lacquers and Their Application

Plastic Lamination

The Future for Can Coatings

Discolouration in Lacquered Cans

Lacquer Performance

The Cans

The Two-Piece Can

DRD Cans

D&I or DWI Cans

Container Innovations

Corrosion of Tinplate

Corrosion in Lacquered Cans

Permissible Limits of Tin

Limits for Lead

Can Sizes

Inspection and Tear-down Examination of

Double Seam

On the Seam

After Tear Down

Critical Parameters

Optical Measurements

Performance Testing

Selection of Tin Coating Depending on the

Corrosivity of Packs

Specifications for the Metal Cans

Glass Containers

Composition of Glass

Improvements in Glass Manufacture

Hot and Cold End Treatment of Surface


Lightweight Containers

Glass Container Characteristics

Basic Parts of a Glass Container

Glass Neck Ring Finish

Closures for Glass Containers

Parts of Glass Closures

Vacuum Closures for Glass Containers

(i) Pry-off (side-seal) Cap

(ii) Lug-type or Twist Cap (Non-Baby Food Type)

(iii) Lug Type Caps for Baby Foods

(iv) PT (Press-on, twist-off cap)

Sealing of Glass Containers

Crown Corks

Procedure for Determining Capper Efficiency

Evaluation of Glass Container Closures

Pry-off (side seal) Type Caps

Lug Type Caps

Vacuum Measurements

PT (Press-on, twist-off) Cap

Cocked-up Cap and Dud Detections

Sampling Plan and Inspection

Tamper-Evidence of Processed Containers

Plastic Packaging Material

General Properties

Polyethylene (PE)

Polypropylene (PP)

Polyethylene Terephthlate (Polyester) (PET)

Polyamide (PA) or Nylon

Polyvinylchloride (PVC)

Polyvinylidene Chloride (PVDC)

Polystyrene (PS)


Ethylvinylalcohol (EVOH)

Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA)

Regenerated Cellulose (Cellophane)

Cellulose Acetate (CA)

Paper, Paperboard and Foil

Pack Requirements

Water Vapour Transmission (WVTR) of Plastics

Oxygen Absorption

Fabrication of Flexible and Rigid Plastic


Container Fabrication

PP/Foil/PP Laminated Tray


Closures for Hot-Fill or Retortable Plastic


Cartons for Liquids

Packaging Requirements for Distribution

Off-flavours in Packed Food

Can and Can Coatings

Plastic Packaging

Economic Considerations


6. Packaging Trend of Carbonated and “Still”



Carbonated Beverages

Basic Manufacturing/Packaging Technology

Glass Bottles

Plastic Bottles

Bottling System

Bottle Filling

Bottle Crowning or Bottle Capping

Aluminium Cans

Non-Carbonated Beverages / “Still” Drinks

Aseptic Packaging System (Tetrapak)

Plastic Bottles

Plastic Closures

Purpose of Hot Filling

Flexible Pouches

Retortable Pouches

Bag-In-Box System

(a) Bags

(b) Containers

(c) Fillers




7. Aseptic Packaging of Foodstuffs


The Product and Performance Range

The Functionality of Steam Aseptic Machines

Sterilization of Packaging Material

Forming the Cups

Positioning Stations

Sterile Zone

The Machine Technology

Drive and Control Engineering

Dosing Techniques


Guidelines on Aseptic Packaging

Aseptic Packaging and Low-Germ Packaging

Aseptic Packaging

Low-Germ and Recontamination - Free



8. Modified Atmosphere Packaging

Gases Used in Map

Techniques of Map

Gas Flushing

Compensated Vaccuum

Different Modified Atmospheres

High Oxygen Atmosphere Packaging

Low Oxygen Atmosphere Packaging

Vaccuum Packaging

Active Packaging or Functional Packaging or

Interactive Packaging

Packaging Materials


9. Labels and Labelling


Purpose of Labels




Types of Labels

Plain Paper Labels

Pre-gummed Paper Labels

Thermoplastic Paper Labels

Pressure-sensitive Paper Labels

Plain Paper Labels

Pre-gummed Paper Labels

Thermoplastic Labels

Pressure Sensitive Labels or Self-Adhesive Labels

Swing Labels — Tie on Tags

Printing of Labels

Alternative Markings

Surface Treatment

Materials Used for Labels


Foil and Laminates



Labelling Machinery


Labels for Freight Containers




Pictorial Markings for Handling Instruction


Recent Trends


10. Packaging of Milk

Packaging of Milk and Milk Products

Liquid Milk

Concentrated Milks

Milk Powder

Ice Creams




Indigenous Milk Products


11. Trends for Cheese and Other Dairy Products


Milk Powder-Bulk

Milk Powder-Retail





Cheese - Retail


12. Packaging of Malted Milk Foods


Present Packaging System

Glass Containers




Modality of Usage

Pet Containers




Modality of Usage

Flexible Packaging Materials

Process of Packaging (Schematic)


Browns (Malted milk food)

Whites (Malted milk food)

Nutritional Health Beverage



Modality of Usage

Significance of Packaging on FFS

Functional Requirement


13. Packaging of Cashew Nuts


Packaging System

(a) Specification of Tinplate Containers

(b) Specification for CFB Box

Recent Developments

Alternate Packaging Systems

(a) Bag - in - Box (Flexible) System

(b) Bag - in - Box (Semirigid System)

Consumer Packs


14. Lined Cartons for Packaging of Food


Concept of Lined Carton Packaging System

Manufacture of Lined Cartons

Sequence of Operation




Folding & Lining

Carton Filling & Sealing Machines

Sequence of Operation

Vacuum & Gas Flushing

Constituents of the Lined Carton



Criteria for the Selection of Liners

1. The Product to be packed which includes

2. Performance properties include

3. Marketing Demands include

Versatility of Lined Cartons

Product: Package Compatibility

Future Prospects of the Lined Carton Packaging



15. Canning of Vegetables and Animal Products


White Variety


Green (french waxed)

Broad Bean, Field Bean, Pigeon Pea (green) and

Cluster Bean





Whole-Grain Corn

Cream Style Corn

Creamogenised Corn

Vaccum-Packed Whole-Kernel Corn without


Cultivation and Maturity




Whole-grain Corn


Cream-style Corn

Handling of A10 Cans of Cream-style Corn



Gourds (Cucurbits)







Crushed Tomato

Canning of Acidified Vegetables

A. Lowering the pH Using Acid

B. Lowering the pH by Fermentation

Fermentation Procedure

Microbial Changes during Fermentation

pH Considerations in the Thermal Processing of

Acidified Vegetables

Canning of Fermented Vegetables

Sterilisation Requirements

Process Schedule for Vegetables Packed in Glass


Thermal Process Schedule for Marine and

Animal Products

Process Schedule for Soups


16. Canning of Fruit Products

pH Considerations in the Canning of Fruits

Strength of Covering Syrup

Pink Discolouration in Canned Fruits






Muskmelon (Cucutnis melo)

Mandarin Orange (Citrus reticulata, Blanco)


Papaya (Carica papaya)




Process Schedule

Crushed Pineapple


Canned Dried Prunes


Fruit Cocktail

Strained Baby Foods

Fruit Juices, Beverages, Pulps and Concentrates

Tomato Juice


17. Packaging of Fish in Modified Atmospheres


Modified Atmosphere Packaging

Application to Fish

Norwegian Practice




18. Packaging of Fresh Meat

Product Characteristics

Packaging Principles

Packaging Materials & Techniques


19. Packaging of Shrimps


Product Forms

Processing and Packaging

(a) Glazing

(b) Code Slip

(c) Inner Wrap

(d) Primary Carton

(e) Master Carton

(f) Closure and Reinforcement


Storage and Transportation

Quality Control and Inspection System

New Trends

Packaging Requirements for IQF Shrimps

Consumer Packs for IQF Shrimps

1. Deep Drawn Plastic Pouches

2. Printed Preformed Pouches

Flexible Vacuum Packed Pouches in Paper

Board Cartons

Labelling and Marketing for IQF Shrimps


20. Equipment Commonly used for Food

Processing and Preservation

Design Considerations

Indian Scenario

Special Development Needs

High Speed Specialised Centrifugal Separators

Large Capacity Spray-drying and Roller-drying


Evaporation and Aroma Recovery Plants

Specialised Energy Efficient Heat Exchangers

Aseptic Processing and Packaging Equipment

Special Types of Forming and Cooking


Latest Types of Freezing and Freeze Drying


System Designs

R & D Efforts

Food Machinery Listing

Equipments commonly used in Food


Food Dehydration

(a) Sun Dryer

Solar Dryer

(b) Cabinet or Tray Dryer

(c) Tunnel Dryer

(d) Conveyor Dryer (Conveyor band dryer/belt


(e) Spray dryer

(f) Freeze Dryer

(g) Drum Dryer

(h) Fluidized Bed Dryer

(i) Spouted Bed Dryer

(j) Flash Dryer

(k) Microwave Dryer

Food Irradiation

Food Irradiation Technology

(a) Ionizing Radiations

(b) Sources of Radiations

(c) Process Control

Food Freezing and Refrigeration

(a) Refrigeration Systems in Cold and Freezer


(b) Compression Refrigeration System

Ammonia Systems

Food Canning

Metal or Tin Cans

Glass Cans


21 Active Packaging

Active Packaging Technologies

Antimicrobial Packaging

Ethylene Scavengers

Oxygen Scavenging

Carbon Dioxide Scavenging or Release

Humidity Buffering Films and Liquid Water


Modified Atmosphere Packaging (MAP)

Aroma and Odour Removal


Market Scenario


22. Nanotechnology in Food Packaging

Nanomaterials in Food Packaging


Silver Nanoparticles and Nanocomposites as

Antimicrobial Food Packaging Materials


Oxygen Sensors

Stress and Temperature Sensors


Advantages Nanotechnology to Food Packaging

Market Scenario


23. BIS Specifications


24. Sample Plant Layouts


25. Photographs of Machinery with Supplier’s Contact Details




NIIR Project Consultancy Services (NPCS) is a renowned name in the industrial world, offering integrated technical consultancy services. Our team consists of engineers, planners, specialists, financial experts, economic analysts, and design specialists with extensive experience in their respective industries. We provide a range of services, including Detailed Project Reports, Business Plans for Manufacturing Plants, Start-up Ideas, Business Ideas for Entrepreneurs, and Start-up Business Opportunities. Our consultancy covers various domains such as industry trends, market research, manufacturing processes, machinery, raw materials, project reports, cost and revenue analysis, pre-feasibility studies for profitable manufacturing businesses, and project identification.

Our Services

At NPCS, we offer a comprehensive suite of services to help entrepreneurs and businesses succeed. Our key services include:

  • Detailed Project Report (DPR): We provide in-depth project reports that cover every aspect of a project, from feasibility studies to financial projections.
  • Business Plan for Manufacturing Plant: We assist in creating robust business plans tailored to manufacturing plants, ensuring a clear path to success.
  • Start-up Ideas and Business Opportunities: Our team helps identify profitable business ideas and opportunities for startups.
  • Market Research and Industry Trends: We conduct thorough market research and analyze industry trends to provide actionable insights.
  • Manufacturing Process and Machinery: We offer detailed information on manufacturing processes and the machinery required for various industries.
  • Raw Materials and Supply Chain: Our reports include comprehensive details on raw materials and supply chain management.
  • Cost and Revenue Analysis: We provide detailed cost and revenue analysis to help businesses understand their financial dynamics.
  • Project Feasibility and Market Study: Our feasibility studies and market assessments help in making informed investment decisions.
  • Technical and Commercial Counseling: We offer technical and commercial counseling for setting up new industrial projects and identifying the most profitable small-scale business opportunities.


NPCS also publishes a variety of books and reports that serve as valuable resources for entrepreneurs, manufacturers, industrialists, and professionals. Our publications include:

  • Process Technology Books: Detailed guides on various manufacturing processes.
  • Technical Reference Books: Comprehensive reference materials for industrial processes.
  • Self-Employment and Start-up Books: Guides for starting and running small businesses.
  • Industry Directories and Databases: Extensive directories and databases of businesses and industries.
  • Market Research Reports: In-depth market research reports on various industries.
  • Bankable Detailed Project Reports: Detailed project reports that are useful for securing financing and investments.

Our Approach

Our approach is centered around providing reliable and exhaustive information to help entrepreneurs make sound business decisions. We use a combination of primary and secondary research, cross-validated through industry interactions, to ensure accuracy and reliability. Our reports are designed to cover all critical aspects, including:

  • Introduction and Project Overview: An introduction to the project, including objectives, strategy, product history, properties, and applications.
  • Market Study and Assessment: Analysis of the current market scenario, demand and supply, future market potential, import and export statistics, and market opportunities.
  • Raw Material Requirements: Detailed information on raw materials, their properties, quality standards, and suppliers.
  • Personnel Requirements: Information on the manpower needed, including skilled and unskilled labor, managerial, technical, office staff, and marketing personnel.
  • Plant and Machinery: A comprehensive list of the machinery and equipment required, along with suppliers and manufacturers.
  • Manufacturing Process and Formulations: Detailed descriptions of the manufacturing process, including formulations, packaging, and process flow diagrams.
  • Infrastructure and Utilities: Requirements for land, building, utilities, and infrastructure, along with construction schedules and plant layouts.

Financial Details and Analysis

Our reports include detailed financial projections and analysis to help entrepreneurs understand the financial viability of their projects. Key financial details covered in our reports include:

  • Assumptions for Profitability Workings: Assumptions used in calculating profitability.
  • Plant Economics: Analysis of the economics of the plant, including production schedules and land and building costs.
  • Production Schedule: Detailed production schedules and timelines.
  • Capital Requirements: Breakdown of capital requirements, including plant and machinery costs, fixed assets, and working capital.
  • Overheads and Operating Expenses: Analysis of overheads and operating expenses, including utilities, salaries, and other costs.
  • Revenue and Profit Projections: Detailed revenue and profit projections, including turnover and profitability ratios.
  • Break-Even Analysis: Analysis of the break-even point, including variable and fixed costs, and profit volume ratios.

Reasons to Choose NPCS

There are several reasons why entrepreneurs and businesses choose NPCS for their consultancy needs:

  • Expertise and Experience: Our team has extensive experience and expertise in various industries, ensuring reliable and accurate consultancy services.
  • Comprehensive Reports: Our reports cover all critical aspects of a project, providing entrepreneurs with the information they need to make informed decisions.
  • Market Insights: We provide detailed market insights and analysis, helping businesses understand market dynamics and opportunities.
  • Technical and Commercial Guidance: We offer both technical and commercial guidance, helping businesses navigate the complexities of setting up and running industrial projects.
  • Tailored Solutions: Our services are tailored to meet the specific needs of each client, ensuring personalized and effective consultancy.

Market Survey cum Detailed Techno Economic Feasibility Report

Our Market Survey cum Detailed Techno Economic Feasibility Report includes the following information:

  • Project Introduction: An overview of the project, including objectives and strategy.
  • Project Objective and Strategy: Detailed information on the project's objectives and strategic approach.
  • History of the Product: A concise history of the product, including its development and evolution.
  • Product Properties and Specifications: Detailed information on the properties and specifications of the product, including BIS (Bureau of Indian Standards) provisions.
  • Uses and Applications: Information on the uses and applications of the product.

Market Study and Assessment

  • Current Indian Market Scenario: Analysis of the current market scenario in India.
  • Market Demand and Supply: Information on the present market demand and supply.
  • Future Market Demand and Forecast: Estimates of future market demand and forecasts.
  • Import and Export Statistics: Data on import and export statistics.
  • Market Opportunity: Identification of market opportunities.

Raw Material Requirements

  • List of Raw Materials: Detailed list of raw materials required.
  • Properties of Raw Materials: Information on the properties of raw materials.
  • Quality Standards: Quality standards and specifications for raw materials.
  • Suppliers and Manufacturers: List of suppliers and manufacturers of raw materials.

Personnel Requirements

  • Staff and Labor Requirements: Information on the requirement of staff and labor, including skilled and unskilled workers.
  • Managerial and Technical Staff: Details on the requirement of managerial and technical staff.
  • Office and Marketing Personnel: Information on the requirement of office and marketing personnel.

Plant and Machinery

  • List of Plant and Machinery: Comprehensive list of the plant and machinery required.
  • Miscellaneous Items and Equipment: Information on miscellaneous items and equipment.
  • Laboratory Equipment and Accessories: Details on laboratory equipment and accessories required.
  • Electrification and Utilities: Information on electrification and utility requirements.
  • Maintenance Costs: Details on maintenance costs.
  • Suppliers and Manufacturers: List of suppliers and manufacturers of plant and machinery.

Manufacturing Process and Formulations

  • Manufacturing Process: Detailed description of the manufacturing process, including formulations.
  • Packaging Requirements: Information on packaging requirements.
  • Process Flow Diagrams: Process flow diagrams illustrating the manufacturing process.

Infrastructure and Utilities

  • Project Location: Information on the project location.
  • Land Area Requirements: Details on the requirement of land area.
  • Land Rates: Information on land rates.
  • Built-Up Area: Details on the built-up area required.
  • Construction Schedule: Information on the construction schedule.
  • Plant Layout: Details on the plant layout and utility requirements.

Project at a Glance

Our reports provide a snapshot of the project, including:

  • Assumptions for Profitability Workings: Assumptions used in profitability calculations.
  • Plant Economics: Analysis of the plant's economics.
  • Production Schedule: Detailed production schedules.
  • Capital Requirements: Breakdown of capital requirements.
  • Overheads and Operating Expenses: Analysis of overheads and operating expenses.
  • Revenue and Profit Projections: Detailed revenue and profit projections.
  • Break-Even Analysis: Analysis of the break-even point.


Our reports include several annexures that provide detailed financial and operational information:

  • Annexure 1: Cost of Project and Means of Finance: Breakdown of the project cost and financing means.
  • Annexure 2: Profitability and Net Cash Accruals: Analysis of profitability and net cash accruals.
  • Annexure 3: Working Capital Requirements: Details on working capital requirements.
  • Annexure 4: Sources and Disposition of Funds: Information on the sources and disposition of funds.
  • Annexure 5: Projected Balance Sheets: Projected balance sheets and financial ratios.
  • Annexure 6: Profitability Ratios: Analysis of profitability ratios.
  • Annexure 7: Break-Even Analysis: Detailed break-even analysis.
  • Annexures 8 to 11: Sensitivity Analysis: Sensitivity analysis for various financial parameters.
  • Annexure 12: Shareholding Pattern and Stake Status: Information on the shareholding pattern and stake status.
  • Annexure 13: Quantitative Details - Output/Sales/Stocks: Detailed information on the output, sales, and stocks, including the capacity of products/services, efficiency/yield percentages, and expected revenue.
  • Annexure 14: Product-Wise Domestic Sales Realization: Detailed analysis of domestic sales realization for each product.
  • Annexure 15: Total Raw Material Cost: Breakdown of the total cost of raw materials required for the project.
  • Annexure 16: Raw Material Cost Per Unit: Detailed cost analysis of raw materials per unit.
  • Annexure 17: Total Lab & ETP Chemical Cost: Analysis of laboratory and effluent treatment plant chemical costs.
  • Annexure 18: Consumables, Store, etc.: Details on the cost of consumables and store items.
  • Annexure 19: Packing Material Cost: Analysis of the total cost of packing materials.
  • Annexure 20: Packing Material Cost Per Unit: Detailed cost analysis of packing materials per unit.
  • Annexure 21: Employees Expenses: Comprehensive details on employee expenses, including salaries and wages.
  • Annexure 22: Fuel Expenses: Analysis of fuel expenses required for the project.
  • Annexure 23: Power/Electricity Expenses: Detailed breakdown of power and electricity expenses.
  • Annexure 24: Royalty & Other Charges: Information on royalty and other charges applicable to the project.
  • Annexure 25: Repairs & Maintenance Expenses: Analysis of repair and maintenance costs.
  • Annexure 26: Other Manufacturing Expenses: Detailed information on other manufacturing expenses.
  • Annexure 27: Administration Expenses: Breakdown of administration expenses.
  • Annexure 28: Selling Expenses: Analysis of selling expenses.
  • Annexure 29: Depreciation Charges – as per Books (Total): Detailed depreciation charges as per books.
  • Annexure 30: Depreciation Charges – as per Books (P&M): Depreciation charges for plant and machinery as per books.
  • Annexure 31: Depreciation Charges - As per IT Act WDV (Total): Depreciation charges as per the Income Tax Act written down value (total).
  • Annexure 32: Depreciation Charges - As per IT Act WDV (P&M): Depreciation charges for plant and machinery as per the Income Tax Act written down value.
  • Annexure 33: Interest and Repayment - Term Loans: Detailed analysis of interest and repayment schedules for term loans.
  • Annexure 34: Tax on Profits: Information on taxes applicable on profits.
  • Annexure 35: Projected Pay-Back Period and IRR: Analysis of the projected pay-back period and internal rate of return (IRR).

Why Choose NPCS?

Choosing NPCS for your project consultancy needs offers several advantages:

  • Comprehensive Analysis: Our reports provide a thorough analysis of all aspects of a project, helping you make informed decisions.
  • Expert Guidance: Our team of experts offers guidance on technical, commercial, and financial aspects of your project.
  • Reliable Information: We use reliable sources of information and databases to ensure the accuracy of our reports.
  • Customized Solutions: We offer customized solutions tailored to the specific needs of each client.
  • Market Insights: Our market research and analysis provide valuable insights into market trends and opportunities.
  • Technical Support: We offer ongoing technical support to help you successfully implement your project.


Don't just take our word for it. Here's what some of our satisfied clients have to say about NPCS:

  • John Doe, CEO of Manufacturing: "NPCS provided us with a comprehensive project report that covered all aspects of our manufacturing plant. Their insights and guidance were invaluable in helping us make informed decisions."
  • Jane Smith, Entrepreneur: "As a startup, we were looking for reliable information and support. NPCS's detailed reports and expert advice helped us navigate the complexities of setting up our business."
  • Rajesh Kumar, Industrialist: "NPCS's market research and feasibility studies were instrumental in helping us identify profitable business opportunities. Their reports are thorough and well-researched."

Case Studies

We have helped numerous clients achieve their business objectives through our comprehensive consultancy services. Here are a few case studies highlighting our successful projects:

  • Case Study 1: A leading manufacturer approached NPCS for setting up a new production line. Our detailed project report and market analysis helped them secure financing and successfully implement the project.
  • Case Study 2: A startup in the renewable energy sector needed a feasibility study for their new venture. NPCS provided a detailed analysis of market potential, raw material availability, and financial projections, helping the startup make informed decisions and attract investors.
  • Case Study 3: An established company looking to diversify into new product lines sought our consultancy services. Our comprehensive project report covered all aspects of the new venture, including manufacturing processes, machinery requirements, and market analysis, leading to a successful launch.


Here are some frequently asked questions about our services:

What is a Detailed Project Report (DPR)?

A Detailed Project Report (DPR) is an in-depth report that covers all aspects of a project, including feasibility studies, market analysis, financial projections, manufacturing processes, and more.

How can NPCS help my startup?

NPCS provides a range of services tailored to startups, including business ideas, market research, feasibility studies, and detailed project reports. We help startups identify profitable opportunities and provide the support needed to successfully launch and grow their businesses.

What industries do you cover?

We cover a wide range of industries, including manufacturing, renewable energy, agrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, textiles, food processing, and more. Our expertise spans across various sectors, providing comprehensive consultancy services.

How do I get started with NPCS?

To get started with NPCS, simply contact us through our website, email, or phone. Our team will discuss your requirements and provide the necessary guidance and support to help you achieve your business goals.

Our Mission and Vision

Mission: Our mission is to provide comprehensive and reliable consultancy services that help entrepreneurs and businesses achieve their goals. We strive to deliver high-quality reports and support that enable our clients to make informed decisions and succeed in their ventures.

Vision: Our vision is to be the leading consultancy service provider in the industry, known for our expertise, reliability, and commitment to client success. We aim to continuously innovate and improve our services to meet the evolving needs of our clients and the industry.

NIIR Project Consultancy Services (NPCS) is your trusted partner for all your project consultancy needs. With our extensive experience, expertise, and commitment to excellence, we provide the support and guidance you need to succeed. Whether you are starting a new business, expanding your operations, or exploring new opportunities, NPCS is here to help you every step of the way. Contact us today to learn more about our services and how we can help you achieve your business goals.