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Detailed Project Profiles on Dairy & Dairy Products (2nd Edn.)# ( ) ( Best Seller ) ( ) ( ) ( )
Author NPCS board ISBN 9789381039106
Code ENI16 Format Hardcover
Price: Rs 1495   1495 US$ 150   150
Pages: 163 Published 2012
Publisher Niir Project Consultancy Services
Usually Ships within 5 days

***********Limited Edition- available in Photostat Version Only************

A dairy is a business enterprise established for the harvesting of animal milk mostly from cows or goats, but also from buffaloes, sheep, horses or camels – for human consumption. A dairy is typically located on a dedicated dairy farm or in a section of a multi-purpose farm (mixed farm) that is concerned with the harvesting of milk. The farm area where milk is stored in bulk tanks is known as the farm's "milk house." Milk is then hauled (usually by truck) to a "dairy plant," also referred to as a "dairy", where raw milk is further processed and prepared for commercial sale of dairy products. Dairy plants process the raw milk they receive from farmers so as to extend its marketable life. Two main types of processes are employed: heat treatment to ensure the safety of milk for human consumption and to lengthen its shelf-life, and dehydrating dairy products such as butter, hard cheese and milk powders so that they can be stored. A dairy product or milk product is food produced from the milk of mammals. Dairy products are usually high energy-yielding food products. A production plant for the processing of milk is called a dairy or a dairy factory. Apart from breastfed infants, the human consumption of dairy products is sourced primarily from the milk of cows, water buffaloes, goats, sheep, yaks, horses, camels, domestic buffaloes, and other mammals. 
India is making efforts for strengthening the dairy sector through various development schemes like Intensive Dairy Development Programme, Strengthening Infrastructure for Quality & Clean Milk Production, Assistance to Cooperatives and Dairy Entrepreneurship Development Scheme. The share of value added dairy products (VADP) in the milk and milk derivatives segment is expected to grow by around 25 per cent till 2019-20,   the Indian dairy industry has shown constant growth in milk production as well as per capita milk availability, i.e., 51.4 million tonne to about 127 million tonne and 291 gm/day respectively. With current growth the rate of approximately 3%-4%, it is thought to grow to 185 million tonne and become a $24 billion (Rs 1, 44,000 crore) organized industry by 2020 and $140 billion (Rs 8, 40,000 crore) including the unorganized sector. However our research considers the same production levels by 2022-23.
The content of the book includes information about dairy and dairy products. the major contents of this book are project profiles of projects like dairy industry, dairy processing 22, dairy packaging 32, organic dairy farming 39, casein from milk 43, cheese analogue 51, chocolate and confectionary 61, dairy farming & packing of milk 75, ice-cream of different flavours 90, milk chilling plant 106, hut milk plant 119, yogurt 136.
Project profile contains information like uses and applications, properties, B.I.S specification, manufacturing process, flow diagram, plant economics, , land and building, plant and machinery, fixed capital, working capital requirement/month, total working capital/month, cost of project, total capital investment, turn over/annum, profit sales ratio, rate of return, breakeven point (B.E.P).
This book is very useful for new entrepreneurs, technical institutions, existing units and technocrats.

a) Introduction
i) Dairy Farming
b) Milk Composition
c) Properties of Milk
i) Minor Milk Constituents
ii) Acidity and Ph of Milk
iii) Density and Specific Gravity
iv) Freezing Point of Milk
v) Organoleptic Properties of Raw Milk
vi) Density of Milk
vii) Determination of Fat Content in Milk and Cream
viii) Determination of Protein Content in Milk and Cream
ix) Detection of Preservatives and Antibiotics in Milk
x) Measurement of Ph
d) Standardisation of Whole Milk and Cream
e) Dairy Products
f) Significance of Milk and Dairy Products for Humans
g) Milk Testing Procedure
i) Fat & Snf
ii) Homogenization Efficiency
iii) Methyl Blue Reduction Test (MBRT)
iv) Keeping Quality of Milk
v) Titrable Acidity
vi) Cob
vii) Neutralizers

viii) Appearance of the Test
ix) Problems in test Result
h) Quality Control of Pasteurised Milk
a) Introduction
b) Types of Milk
c) Heat Treatment of Milks
d) Sterilization of Milk
e) Ultra Heat Treatment of Milk
f) Evaporation of Milk
g) Condensation of Milk
h) Filtration of Milk
i) Dehydration of Milk
j) Homogenisation
k) Industrial Processing
l) Impacts of Dairy Processing
a) Introduction
b) Aseptic Packaging
c) Advantages of Aseptic Packaging Technology
d) Advantages of Aseptically processed Milk Are
e) Sterilisation of Aseptic Packaging Materials and Equipment
f) Types of Aseptic Packs
g) Modified Atmosphere Packaging
a) Introduction
b) Organic Dairy Production
c) Common Organic Dairy Production Requirements
d) Organic Milk
e) Benefits of Organic Milk
f) Differences in the Milk
a) Introduction
b) Characteristics of Casein
c) Uses & Applications
d) Properties
e) Availability of Raw Material
f) B.I.S. Specification
g) Manufacturing Process
h) Flow Diagram for Casein Manufacture
i) Plant Economics
i) Plant Capacity
ii) Land & Building
iii) Plant & Machinery
iv) Fixed Capital
v) Working Capital Requirement
vi) Raw Materials
vii) Total Working Capital
viii) Cost of Project
ix) Total Capital Investment
x) Turn Over
xi) Profit Sales Ratio
xii) Rate of Return
xiii) Break Even Point (B.E.P)
a) Introduction
b) Uses
c) Properties
d) Manufacturing Process
e) Process
f) Sterilization
g) Manufacturing Process Flow Diagram
h) Plant Economics
i) Plant Capacity
ii) Land & Building Cost
iii) Plant & Machinery
iv) Fixed Capital
v) Working Capital requirement
vi) Raw Materials
vii) Total Working Capital
viii) Cost of Project
ix) Total Capital Investment
x) Turn Over
xi) Profit Sales Ratio
xii) Rate of Return
xiii) Break Even Point (B.E.P)
a) Introduction
b) Types of Chocolate
c) B.I.S. Specification
d) Nutritional Properties of Chocolates Products
e) Chocolate Manufacturing
f) Manufacturing Process Flow Diagram
g) Plant Economics
i) Plant Capacity
ii) Land & Building Cost
iii) Plant & Machinery
iv) Fixed Capital
v) Working Capital Requirement
vi) Raw Materials
vii) Total Working Capital
viii) Cost of Project
ix) Total Capital Investment
x) Turn Over
xi) Profit Sales Ratio
xii) Rate of Return
xiii) Break Even Point (B.E.P)
a) Introduction
b) Uses & Applications of Milk
c) B.I.S. Specification
d) Composition of Milk
e) Some Physical Characteristics of Milk
f) Properties of Milk
g) Changes in Milk and its Constituents During Storage and Processing
h) Effect of Heat Treatment
i) Milking Process
j) Cooling & Storing Milk
k) Milk Processing for Packing in Pouches & Cans
l) Packaging & Storage of Pasteurized Milk Process Flow Diagram
m) Plant Economics
i) Plant Capacity
ii) Land & Building Cost
iii) Plant & Machinery
iv) Fixed Capital
v) Working Capital Requirement
vi) Raw Materials
vii) Total Working Capital
viii) Cost of Project
ix) Total Capital Investment
x) Turn Over
xi) Profit Sales Ratio
xii) Rate of Return
xiii) Break Even Point (B.E.P)
a) Introduction
b) Ice Cream Mix Properties
c) Properties of Ice Cream and Ice-Cream Mix
d) Ice Cream Ingredients
e) B.I.S. Specification
f) Process of Manufacture
g) How the Plant Operates
h) Receiving Raw Products
i) Mix Assemble
j) Pasteurizing, Homogenizing and Cooling
k) Freezing Packing and Storing
l) Loading Out
m) Plant Economics
i) Plant Capacity
ii) Land & Building Cost
iii) Plant & Machinery
iv) Fixed Capital
v) Working Capital Requirement
vi) Raw Materials
vii) Total Working Capital
viii) Cost of Project
ix) Total Capital Investment
x) Turn Over
xi) Profit Sales Ratio
xii) Rate of Return
xiii) Break Even Point (B.E.P)
a) Introduction
b) Kinds of Milk
c) Factors Affecting Composition of Milk
d) Food and Nutritive Value of Milk
e) Physicochemical Properties of Milk Constituents
f) Physico-Chemical Properties of Milk
g) Properties of Milk
h) Uses of Milk
i) B.I.S. Specification
j) Microboilogical Parameters in Relation to Safety of Milk
k) Substances in Milk Error! Bookmark not defined.
l) Testing for Residual Pesticide in Milk
m) Low Temperature Microbiology and Long Distance Rail Transport
n) Quick Enumeration of Psychotrophic
o) Milk Collection & Processing
p) Milk Processing Flow Diagram
q) Plant Economics
i) Plant Capacity
ii) Land & Building Cost
iii) Plant & Machinery
iv) Fixed Capital
v) Working Capital Requirement
vi) Raw Materials
vii) Total Wworking Capital
viii) Cost of Project
ix) Total Capital Investment
x) Turn Over
xi) Profit Sales Ratio
xii) Rate of Return
xiii) Break Even Point (B.E.P)
a) Introduction
b) Terminology
c) Physical and Chemical Structure of Milk
d) Milk Processing
e) Composition of Milk
f) Nutritional Value
g) Bovine Growth Hormone Supplementation
h) Nutrition - Comparison by Animalsource
i) Milk Composition Analysis
j) B.I.S. Specifications
k) Manufacturing Process
l) Packaging
m) Process Flow Diagram
n) Plant Economics
i) Plant Capacity
ii) Land & Building Cost
iii) Plant & Machinery
iv) Fixed Capital
v) Working Capital Requirement
vi) Raw Materials
vii) Total Working Capital
viii) Cost of Project
ix) Total Capital Investment
x) Turn Over
xi) Profit Sales Ratio
xii) Rate of Return
xiii) Break Even Point (B.E.P)
12) YOGURT 136
a) Introduction
b) Properties of Yoghurt
c) Chemical Composition of Yoghurt
d) Uses & Application
e) Users
f) Manufacturing Process Flow Diagram
g) Manufacturing Process
h) Plant Economics
i) Plant Capacity
ii) Land & Building Cost
iii) Plant & Machinery
iv) Fixed Capital
v) Working Capital Requirement
vi) Raw Materials
vii) Total Working Capital
viii) Cost of Project
ix) Total Capital Investment
x) Turn Over
xi) Profit Sales Ratio
xii) Rate of Return
xiii) Break Even Point (B.E.P)




Milk is an opaque white liquid produced by the mammary glands of mammals. It provides the primary source of nutrition for young mammals before they are able to digest other types of food. The early lactation milk is known as colostrum, and carries the mother's antibodies to the baby. It can reduce the risk of many diseases in the baby. The exact components of raw milk vary by species, but it contains significant amounts of saturated fat, protein and calcium as well as vitamin C. Cow's milk has a pH ranging from 6.4 to 6.8, making it slightly acidic.

There are two distinct types of milk consumption: a natural source of nutrition for all infant mammals, and a food product for humans of all ages derived from other animals.

Nutrition for Infant Mammals

In almost all mammals, milk is fed to infants through breastfeeding, either directly or by expressing the milk to be stored and consumed later. Some cultures, historically or currently, continue to use breast milk to feed their children until they are 7 years old.

Food Product for Humans

In many cultures of the world, especially the Western world, humans continue to consume milk beyond infancy, using the milk of other animals (in particular, cows) as a food product. For millennia, cow milk has been processed into dairy products such as cream, butter, yogurt, kefir, ice cream, and especially the more durable and easily transportable product, cheese. Industrial science has brought us casein, whey protein, lactose, condensed milk, powdered milk, and many other food-additive and industrial products.

Humans are an exception in the natural world for consuming milk past infancy, though some humans are lactose intolerant. The sugar lactose is found only in milk, forsythia flowers, and a few tropical shrubs. The enzyme needed to digest lactose, lactase, reaches its highest levels in the small intestines after birth and then begins a slow decline unless milk is consumed regularly. On the other hand, those groups that do continue to tolerate milk often have exercised great creativity in using the milk of domesticated ungulates, not only of cows, but also sheep, goats, yaks, water buffalo, horses, and camels. The largest producer and consumer of cow's milk in the world is India.


The term milk is also used for whitish non-animal substitutes such as soymilk, rice milk, almond milk, and coconut milk. Even the regurgitated substance secreted by glands in the mucosa of their upper digestive tract which pigeons feed their young is called crop milk though it bears little resemblance to mammalian milk.

Animal milk is first known to have been used as human food at the beginning of animal domestication. Cow milk was first used as human food in the East. Goats and sheep are ruminants: mammals adapted to survive on a diet of dry grass, a food source otherwise useless to humans, and one that is easily stockpiled. The animals dairying proved to be a more efficient way of turning uncultivated grasslands into sustenance: the food value of an animal killed for meat can be matched by perhaps one year's worth of milk from the same animal, which will keep producing milk in convenient daily portions for years.

Around 7000 BC, cattle were being herded in parts of Turkey. There is evidence from DNA extraction of skeletons from the Neolithic period that people in northern Europe were missing the necessary genes to process lactase. Scientists claim it is more likely that the genetic mutation allowing the digestion of milk arose at some point after dairy farming began. The use of cheese and butter spread in Europe, parts of Asia and parts of Africa.

Milk was first delivered in bottles on January 11, 1878. The day is now remembered as Milk Day and is celebrated annually. The town of Harvard, Illinois also celebrates milk in the summer with a festival known as Milk Days. Theirs is a different tradition meant to celebrate dairy farmers in the Milk Capital of the World.


In most Western countries, a centralized dairy facility processes milk and products obtained from milk (dairy products), such as cream, butter, and cheese. In the United States, these dairies are usually local companies, while in the southern hemisphere facilities may be run by very large nationwide or trans-national corporations (such as Fonterra).


Pasteurization is used to kill harmful microorganisms by heating the milk for a short time and then cooling it for storage and transportation. Pasteurized milk is still perishable and must be stored cold by both suppliers and consumers. Dairies print expiration dates on each container, after which stores will remove any unsold milk from their shelves.

A newer process, Ultra Pasteurization or ultra-high temperature treatment (UHT), heats the milk to a higher temperature for a shorter time. This extends its shelf life and allows the milk to be stored un-refrigerated because of the longer lasting sterilization effect.


Microfiltration is a process that partially replaces pasteurization and produces milk with fewer microorganisms and longer shelf life without a change in the taste of the milk. In this process, cream is separated from the whey and is pasteurized in the usual way, but the whey is forced through ceramic microfilters that trap 99.9% of microorganisms in the milk (as compared to 95% killing of microorganisms in conventional pasteurization). The whey is then recombined with the pasteurized cream to reconstitute the original milk composition.

Creaming and Homogenization

Upon standing for 12 to 24 hours, fresh milk has a tendency to separate into a high-fat cream layer on top of a larger, low-fat milk layer. The cream is often sold as a separate product with its own uses; today the separation of the cream from the milk is usually accomplished rapidly in centrifugal cream separators. The fat globules rise to the top of a container of milk because fat is less dense than water. The smaller the globules, the more other molecular-level forces prevent this from happening. In fact, the cream rises in cow milk much more quickly than a simple model would predict: rather than isolated globules, the fat in the milk tends to form into clusters containing about a million globules, held together by a number of minor whey proteins. These clusters rise faster than individual globules can. The fat globules in milk from goats, sheep, and water buffalo do not form clusters so readily and are smaller to begin with; cream is very slow to separate from these milks.

Milk is often homogenized, a treatment which prevents a cream layer from separating out of the milk. The milk is pumped at high pressures through very narrow tubes, breaking up the fat globules through turbulence and cavitation. A greater number of smaller particles possess more total surface area than a smaller number of larger ones, and the original fat globule membranes cannot completely cover them. Casein micelles are attracted to the newly exposed fat surfaces; nearly one-third of the micelles in the milk end up participating in this new membrane structure. The casein weighs down the globules and interferes with the clustering that accelerated separation. The exposed fat globules are briefly vulnerable to certain enzymes present in milk, which could break down the fats and produce rancid flavors. To prevent this, the enzymes are inactivated by pasteurizing the milk immediately before or during homogenization.

Homogenized milk tastes blander but feels creamier in the mouth than un homogenized; it is whiter and more resistant to developing off flavors. Cream line, or cream-top, milk is un-homogenized; it may or may not have been pasteurized. Milk, which has undergone high-pressure homogenization, sometimes labeled as ultra-homogenized, has a longer shelf life than milk, which has undergone ordinary homogenization at lower pressures. Homogenized milk may be more digestible than un homogenized milk.

Kurt A. Oster, M.D., who worked in the 1960s through the 1980s, suggested a link between homogenized milk and arterosclerosis, due to damage to plasmalogen as a result of the release of bovine xanthine oxidize (BXO) from the milk fat globular membrane (MFGM) during homogenization. However, Oster's hypothesis has been widely criticized and has not been generally accepted by the scientific community. No link has been found between arterosclerosis and milk consumption.


     1.   The milk in the tankers received at the plant site.

     2.   After test sampling, the tanker load is transferred to the storage tanks.

     3.   The milk is subjected to heat treatment (Pasteurization), passed through the heat exchanger maintained at high temperature.

     4.   The pasteurized milk collected in the storage tank and subjected to the chilling at low temperature.

     5.   The chilled pasteurized milk is filled in the suitable container and stored at the low temperature and dispatch.


Pasteurization is a process, which slows microbial growth in food. The process was named after its creator, French chemist and microbiologist Louis Pasteur. The first pasteurization test was completed by Louis Pasteur and Claude Bernard on April 20, 1862. The process was originally conceived as a way of preventing wine and beer from souring.

Unlike sterilization, inventor Nicolas Appert, pasteurization is not intended to kill all pathogenic microorganisms in the food or liquid. Instead, pasteurization aims to reduce the number of viable pathogens so they are unlikely to cause disease (assuming the pasteurization product is refrigerated and consumed before its expiration date). Commercial-scale sterilization of food is not common because it adversely affects the taste and quality of the product. Certain food products are processed to achieve the state of commercial sterility.   

Pasteurization typically uses temperatures below boiling since at temperatures above the boiling point for milk, casein micelles will irreversibly aggregate (or curdle). There are two main types of pasteurization used today: High Temperature/Short Time (HTST) and Extended Shelf Life (ESL) treatment. Ultra-high temperature (UHT or ultra-heat treated) is also used for milk treatment. In the HTST process, milk is forced between metal plates or through pipes heated on the outside by hot water, and is heated to 71.7°C (161°F) for 15-20 seconds. UHT processing holds the milk at a temperature of 138°C (280°F) for a fraction of a second. ESL milk has a microbial filtration step and lower temperatures than HTST. Milk simply labeled pasteurization is usually treated with the HTST method, whereas milk labeled ultra-pasteurization or simply UHT has been treated with the UHT method.

Pasteurization methods are usually standardized and controlled by national food safety agencies (such as the FDA.). These agencies require milk to be HTST pasteurized in order to qualify for the pasteurization label. There are different standards for different dairy products, depending on the fat content and the intended usage.

The HTST pasteurization standard was designed to achieve a 5-log reduction, killing 99.999% of the number of viable microorganisms in milk. This is considered adequate for destroying almost all yeasts, mold, and common spoilage bacteria and also to ensure adequate destruction of common pathogenic heat-resistant organisms (including Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which causes tuberculosis and Coxiella burnetii, which causes Q fever). HTST pasteurization processes must be designed so that the milk is heated evenly, and no part of the milk is subject to a shorter time or a lower temperature.

Pasteurization of Milk

Pasteurization is typically associated with milk, first suggested by Franz von Soxhlet in 1886. HTST pasteurized milk typically has a refrigerated shelf life of two to three weeks, whereas ultra pasteurized milk can last much longer when refrigerated, sometimes two to three months. When UHT treatment is combined with sterile handling and container technology (such as aseptic packaging), it can even be stored un-refrigerated for 3-4 months.

The Purpose of Pasteurization

     1.   To increase milk safety for the consumer by destroying disease causing microorganisms (pathogens) that may be present in milk.

     2.   To increase keeping the quality of milk products by destroying spoilage microorganisms and enzymes that contributes to the reduced quality and shelf life of milk.

Pasteurization Conditions

Minimum pasteurization requirements for milk products are shown in Table 1 below, and are based on regulations outlined in the Grade A Pasteurized Milk Ordinance (PMO). These conditions were determined to be the minimum processing conditions needed to kill Coxiella burnetii, the organism that causes Q fever in humans, which is the most heat resistant pathogen currently recognized in milk. Milk can be pasteurized using processing times and temperatures greater than the required minimums.

Pasteurization can be done as a batch or a continuous process. A vat pasteurizer consists of a temperature-controlled, closed vat. The milk is pumped into the vat, the milk is heated to the appropriate temperature and held at that temperature for the appropriate time and then cooled. The cooled milk is then pumped out of the vat to the rest of the processing line, for example to the bottling station or cheese vat. Batch pasteurization is still used in some smaller processing plants. The most common process used for fluid milk is the continuous process. The milk is pumped from the raw milk silo to a holding tank that feeds into the continuous pasteurization system. The milk continuously flows from the tank through a series of thin plates that heat up the milk to the appropriate temperature. The milk flow system is set up to make sure that the milk stays at the pasteurization temperature for the appropriate time before it flows through the cooling area of the pasteurizer. The cooled milk then flows to the rest of the processing line, for example to the bottling station. There are several options for temperatures and times available for continuous processing of refrigerated fluid milk. Although processing conditions are defined for temperatures above 200°F, they are rarely used because they can impart an undesirable cooked flavor to milk.


Milk is a liquid and therefore requires a container at every stage of movement from the cow to the consumer. At the early stages of dairy development the cow's udder was used as the basic container for all purposes. The cow, kept in the town stall, was brought to the customer's doorstep for milking. In some cases the milk was sold from a shop adjacent to the cowshed. In many European countries town cow-keepers could still be found after the First World War but, for reasons of hygiene and economy, they quickly disappeared. This trend seems to be unavoidable for the dairy industry worldwide and will certainly be applied to cities in developing countries where town cow keeping still exists.

The growing demand for milk in towns and the high costs of milk production within their boundaries led to the development - probably around 1860-70 - of containers suitable for various stages of marketing and distribution. These were metal cans, provided with a lid and having capacities up to about 80 litres.

The introduction of this type of container (until recent years often called a ‘churn') facilitated the transport by railway from rural areas to towns, thus contributing substantially to the rapid growth of milk distribution. Similar containers were also used for retail delivery to the consumer, the milk being dispensed in the street or at the doorstep into the consumer's container.

The first significant development in the packaging of milk for retail sale came at the very end of last century with the introduction of the process for sterilized milk in which the retail container, the glass bottle, formed an integral and essential part. In the third decade of this century bottling of pasteurized milk developed rapidly, first in America and soon after in Europe. The glass bottle as the retail package for milk remained unchallenged until 1933 when the first carton made of waxed paper was introduced. The development and introduction of plastic materials for packaging in the dairy industry (initially polyethylene in 1940), alone and in combination with paper, resulted in a wide range of containers, termed cartons, suitable for liquid milk.

When we refer to liquid milk we usually mean a product, either processed or, less often, sold raw to the consumer, deriving from a lactating ruminant, mainly the cow. Processing depends on the grade of milk to be manufactured following the regulations and customs of the country. Heat treatment and, in most countries, standardization of butterfat content, are the basic parts of the processing procedures.


Rated Plant capacity                    =     24.00 KLs/day

                                                   =     8640.00 KLs/annum

                                                          UHT MILK PLANT


No. of working days                     =     30 days/month

                                                   =     360 days/annum

No. of shifts                                =     3 per day

One shift                                     =     8 hours

1 ltr POUCHES/DAY 12000 NOS.


Currency - Rs.


LAND & BUILDING cost                                                                                  Rs.      66.06 Lakh


     1.   Storage Tank

     2.   UHT Plant

     3.   Aseptic Homogenizer

     4.   Storage Tank

     5.   Pouch Filling Sealing Machine

     6.   Aseptic Filling Machine

     7.   Crates

     8.   R/O System

     9.   Boiler

    10.   Chilling System

    11.   Fuel Storage Tank

    12.   Piping & Fittings

    13.   Laboratory Equipment

    14.   Erection & Installation                                                          TOTAL         Rs.      113 Lakh


     1.   LAND & BUILDING                                                                                 Rs.      66.06 Lakh

     2.   PLANT & MACHINERY                                                                           Rs.      113 Lakh

     3.   OTHER FIXED ASSETS                                                                         Rs.      93.13 Lakh

                                                                                                     TOTAL         Rs.      272.19 Lakh



     1.   Raw Milk

     2.   Cleaning Chemicals and Lab Chemicals

     3.   Labels, Gums, Tape & Cartoons

     4.   Pouches of 1 ltr

     5.   Pouches of 500 ml                                                              TOTAL:        Rs.      175.63


     1.   RAW MATERIAL                                                                                     Rs.      175.63 Lakh

     2.   SALARY & WAGES                                                                                Rs.      7 Lakh

     3.   UTILITIES & OVERHEADS                                                                      Rs.      8.75 Lakh

                                                                                                     TOTAL         Rs.      191.38 Lakh


           TOTAL FIXED CAPITAL                                                                          Rs.      272.19 Lakh

           MARGIN MONEY                                                                                   Rs.      143.63 Lakh

                                                                                                     TOTAL         Rs.      415.82 Lakh


           TOTAL FIXED CAPITAL                                                                          Rs.      272.19 Lakh

           TOTAL WORKING CAPITAL FOR 3 MONTHS                                           Rs.      574.38 Lakh

                                                                                                     TOTAL         Rs.      846.57 Lakh

           TURN OVER/ANNUM                             =         Rs. 2807.5 Lakh

           PROFIT SALES RATIO                          =         13.87 %

           RATE OF RETURN                                 =         46.00 %

           BREAK EVEN POINT (B.E.P)                 =         33.62 %





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• This report provides vital information on the product like its definition, characteristics and segmentation.

• This report helps you market and place the product correctly by identifying the target customer group of the product.

• This report helps you understand the viability of the project by disclosing details like raw materials required, manufacturing process, project costs and snapshot of other project financials.

• The report provides forecasts of key parameters which helps to anticipate the industry performance and make sound business decision.


Our Approach:

• Our research reports broadly cover Indian markets, present analysis, outlook and forecast.

• The market forecasts are developed on the basis of secondary research and are cross-validated through interactions with the industry players. 

• We use reliable sources of information and databases.  And information from such sources is processed by us and included in the report.


Our Market Survey cum Detailed Techno Economic Feasibility Report Contains following information:



Ø  Introduction

·         Project Introduction

·         Project Objective and Strategy

·         Concise History of the Product

·         Properties

·         BIS (Bureau of Indian Standards) Provision & Specification

·         Uses & Applications


Ø  Market Study and Assessment

·         Current Indian Market Scenario

·         Present Market Demand and Supply

·         Estimated Future Market Demand and Forecast

·         Statistics of Import & Export

·         Names & Addresses of Existing Units (Present Players)

·         Market Opportunity


Ø  Raw Material

·         List of Raw Materials

·         Properties of Raw Materials

·         Prescribed Quality of Raw Materials

·         List of Suppliers and Manufacturers


Ø  Personnel (Manpower) Requirements

·         Requirement of Staff & Labor (Skilled and Unskilled) Managerial, Technical, Office Staff and Marketing Personnel


Ø  Plant and Machinery

·         List of Plant & Machinery

·         Miscellaneous Items

·         Appliances & Equipments

·         Laboratory Equipments & Accessories

·         Electrification

·         Electric Load & Water

·         Maintenance Cost

·         Sources of Plant & Machinery (Suppliers and Manufacturers)


Ø  Manufacturing Process and Formulations

·         Detailed Process of Manufacture with Formulation

·         Packaging Required

·         Process Flow Sheet Diagram


Ø  Infrastructure and Utilities

·         Project Location

·         Requirement of Land Area

·         Rates of the Land

·         Built Up Area

·         Construction Schedule

·         Plant Layout and Requirement of Utilities


Project at a Glance

Along with financial details as under:


  •     Assumptions for Profitability workings

  •    Plant Economics

  •    Production Schedule

  •    Land & Building

            Factory Land & Building

            Site Development Expenses

  •    Plant & Machinery

             Indigenous Machineries

            Other Machineries (Miscellaneous, Laboratory etc.)

  •    Other Fixed Assets

            Furniture & Fixtures

            Pre-operative and Preliminary Expenses

            Technical Knowhow

            Provision of Contingencies

  •   Working Capital Requirement Per Month

             Raw Material

            Packing Material

            Lab & ETP Chemical Cost

           Consumable Store

  •   Overheads Required Per Month And Per Annum

         Utilities & Overheads (Power, Water and Fuel Expenses etc.)

             Royalty and Other Charges

            Selling and Distribution Expenses

  •    Salary and Wages

  •    Turnover Per Annum

  •   Share Capital

            Equity Capital

            Preference Share Capital


  •    Annexure 1:: Cost of Project and Means of Finance

  •    Annexure 2::  Profitability and Net Cash Accruals


                Expenses/Cost of Products/Services/Items

                Gross Profit

                Financial Charges     

                Total Cost of Sales

                Net Profit After Taxes

                Net Cash Accruals

  •   Annexure 3 :: Assessment of Working Capital requirements

                Current Assets

                Gross Working. Capital

                Current Liabilities

                Net Working Capital

                Working Note for Calculation of Work-in-process

  •    Annexure 4 :: Sources and Disposition of Funds

  •    Annexure 5 :: Projected Balance Sheets

                ROI (Average of Fixed Assets)

                RONW (Average of Share Capital)

                ROI (Average of Total Assets)

  •    Annexure 6 :: Profitability ratios


                Earnings Per Share (EPS)


             Debt Equity Ratio

        Annexure 7   :: Break-Even Analysis

                Variable Cost & Expenses

                Semi-Var./Semi-Fixed Exp.

                Profit Volume Ratio (PVR)

                Fixed Expenses / Cost 


  •   Annexure 8 to 11:: Sensitivity Analysis-Price/Volume

            Resultant N.P.B.T

            Resultant D.S.C.R

   Resultant PV Ratio

   Resultant DER

  Resultant ROI

          Resultant BEP

  •    Annexure 12 :: Shareholding Pattern and Stake Status

        Equity Capital

        Preference Share Capital

  •   Annexure 13 :: Quantitative Details-Output/Sales/Stocks

        Determined Capacity P.A of Products/Services

        Achievable Efficiency/Yield % of Products/Services/Items 

        Net Usable Load/Capacity of Products/Services/Items   

       Expected Sales/ Revenue/ Income of Products/ Services/ Items   

  •    Annexure 14 :: Product wise domestic Sales Realisation

  •    Annexure 15 :: Total Raw Material Cost

  •    Annexure 16 :: Raw Material Cost per unit

  •    Annexure 17 :: Total Lab & ETP Chemical Cost

  •    Annexure 18  :: Consumables, Store etc.,

  •    Annexure 19  :: Packing Material Cost

  •    Annexure 20  :: Packing Material Cost Per Unit

  •    Annexure 21 :: Employees Expenses

  •    Annexure 22 :: Fuel Expenses

  •    Annexure 23 :: Power/Electricity Expenses

  •    Annexure 24 :: Royalty & Other Charges

  •    Annexure 25 :: Repairs & Maintenance Exp.

  •    Annexure 26 :: Other Mfg. Expenses

  •    Annexure 27 :: Administration Expenses

  •    Annexure 28 :: Selling Expenses

  •    Annexure 29 :: Depreciation Charges – as per Books (Total)

  •   Annexure 30   :: Depreciation Charges – as per Books (P & M)

  •   Annexure 31   :: Depreciation Charges - As per IT Act WDV (Total)

  •   Annexure 32   :: Depreciation Charges - As per IT Act WDV (P & M)

  •   Annexure 33   :: Interest and Repayment - Term Loans

  •   Annexure 34   :: Tax on Profits

  •   Annexure 35   ::Projected Pay-Back Period And IRR