The Complete Technology Book on Textile Spinning, Weaving, Finishing and Printing (3rd Revised Edition) ( ) ( Best Seller ) ( ) ( ) ( )
Author NIIR Board of Consultants & Engineers ISBN 9788178331638
Code ENI107 Format Paperback
Price: Rs 1725   1725 US$ 47   47
Pages: 564 Published 2017
Publisher Asia Pacific Business Press Inc.
Usually Ships within 5 Days

Textile industry is one of the few basic industries, which is characterised as a necessary component of human life. One may classify it as a more glamorous industry, but whatever it is, it provides with the basic requirement called clothes. Spinning is the process of converting cotton or manmade fibre into yarn to be used for weaving and knitting. Weaving is a method of textile production in which two distinct sets of yarns or threads are interlaced at right angles to form a fabric or cloth. Finishing refers to the processes that convert the woven or knitted cloth into a usable material. Printing is the process of applying colour to fabric in definite patterns or designs.

The textile industry occupies an important position in the total volume of merchandise trade across countries. Developing countries account for little over two-third of world exports in textiles and clothing. It is the second largest employer after agriculture, providing employment to over 45 million people directly and 60 million people indirectly. The future for the textile industry looks promising, buoyed by both strong domestic consumption as well as export demand. 

This book is based on the latest technology involved in textile industry, which describes the processes available at the spinning and fabric forming stages coupled with the complexities of the finishing and colouration processes to the production of wide ranges of products. 

The major contents of the book are dyeing of textile materials, principles of spinning, process preparatory to spinning, principles of weaving, textile chemicals, yarn preparation, weaving and woven fabrics, knitting and knit fabrics, nonconventional fabrics, cellulosics, mixed fibers, printing compositions, printing processes, transfer dyes, transfer inks etc. It describes the manufacturing processes and photographs of plant & machinery with supplier’s contact details. 

It will be a standard reference book for professionals, entrepreneurs, textile mill owners, those studying and researching in this important area and others interested in the field of textile industry. 

1.  The Dyeing Of Textile Materials           





            The Ingrain Dyes                                            

            Water Used in Dyeing                                                

            Interdependence of Processes                        

            Processes Preliminary to Dyeing                    

            Wool Scouring                                                

            “Boiling-off” Silk                                             

            Cotton Bleaching                                                       

            Wool Dyeing Processes                                   

            Dyeing of Loose Wool                                      

            Slubbing (Silver)                                             

            Yarn Dyeing                                                    

            Piece Dyeing                                                   

            “Woaded Colours”                                           

            Blacks on Wool                                               

            Dark Blues, Greens, and Browns on Wool    

            Cotton Dyeing Processes                                

            Fast Blacks on Cotton                                    

            Fast Colours on Cotton                                  

            Basic Colours on Cotton                                

            Dyeing of Mercerized Cotton                          

            Union Dyeing Processes                                 

            Silk Dyeing Processes                                    

            The Dyeing of Artificial Silk                            

            Colour Matching                                            

            Fastness Properties of Dyes                           

2.  The Principles Of Spinning                      

            Long Fibre Spinning                                       

            Short Fibre Spinning                                     

3.  Process Preparatory To Spinning        

            Four Methods of Preparing Vegetable Fibres for Spinning    

            Four Methods of Preparing Animal Fibres for Spinning        

            Two Methods of Silk Preparation                   

            Typical Example of the Method of

            Preparing and Spinnig                                   

            A Textile Material (China-grass or Ramie)     

            Preparatory Machines                                    

            The Cotton Gin                                               

            The Washing or Scouring Machine               

            The Dryer                                                       

            The Cotton Scutcher                                      

            The Flax Scutcher                                          

            The Backwasher                                            

            The Preparing Gill-box                                   

            The Carder                                                     

            The Dresser                                                    

            The Comb                                                       

            The Drawing-box                                            

            The Cone Drawing-box.                                  

            The French Drawing-box                                

4.  The Principles Of WeavING                      

            Group-unit Weaving                                       




            Letting-off and Taking-up                              

            The Boxing Mechanism                                  

            The Stop-rod and Loose-reed Mechanism     

            The Weft-fork Mechanism                              

            The Warp-stop Mechanism                            

            The Spooling or Shuttling Mechanism          


5.  The Principles Of Designing And





            The Use of Point-paper                                   


            Figure Designing                                            

6.  The Principles Of FinishiNG                    

            Finishing Processes and Machines               

            Mending, Knotting and Burling                     









            Brushing and Raising                                    

            Cropping or Cutting                                       








            General Notes                                                 

7.  Textile Chemicals                                      

            Indian Demand                                              
            Demand for Bleaching Agents                       

            Textile Bleach Formulation                            

            Industry Trends and Success Factors           

            Outlook and Opportunities                            

            Fluorescent Whitening Agent                        

            Sector of Applications                                    

            Usage Pattern                                                 

            Industry Trends and Success Factors           

            Outlook and Opportunity                               

            Flame Retardants                                           

            Halogenated Compounds                               

            Non Halogenated Compounds                        


            Sector of Applications                                    

            Bleaching Agents                                           

            Use of Various Bleaching Agents on

            Textile Fibres                                                  

            Hydrogen Peroxide                                          

            Sodium Hydrosulphite (Hydros)                     

            Sodium Hypochlorite                                      

            Application and Formulations                       

            Bleaching Assistants                                     

            Chelating Agents                                            

            Fatty Alcohol Ethoxylate                                

            Carboxy Methyl Cellulose                              



            Industry Treands and Success Factors         

            Pattern of Use and Formulation - Starch/


            The Spin Finish Compositions for Polyester and Polya Ide Yarn       

            White Oil                                                        

            Industry Trends and Success Factors           

            Warp Sizes                                                     

            Sector of Applications for Sizing Agents        

            Filament Yarns                                               

            Staple or Spun Yarn                                      

            Starch/Modified Starch                                 


            Polyvinyl Alcohol                                            

            Operations Involved in the Use of the

            Textile Chemicals                                           

            Classification of Textile Chemicals                

            Classification Based on Use Pattern             

            Group Classification                                      

            Yarn Lubricants                                             

            Spin Finishing Agent                                     


8.  Global Scenario For

      Textile CheMICALS                                    


            Consumption Pattern of Textile Chemicals   

            Estimated Global Market for Textile


            Estimated Markets for Textile Chemicals in the Asia-pacific Region (2001) 

            Estimated Consumption of Textile Chemical in Different Regions    

            Categories of Textile Chemicals Value           

            (In Millions of Dollars)                                    

            Us Market for Textile Chemicals                    

            Industry Trends and Success Factors           

            Outlook and Opportunities                            

            Oxalic Acid                                                     

            Polyehtylene Glycol                                        

            Applications in Textile Industry                     

            Silicone Oil/ Silicone Emulsion                     

            Indian Demand for Silicone Oil/ Emulsion in

            Textile Sector                                                  

            Industry Trends and Successful Factor        

            Outlook and Opportunities                            


            Industry Trends and Success Factors           

            Sulphur Black                                                

            Industry Trends and Outlook                         

            Textile Enzymes                                              


            Classification of Thickening Agent                

            Pigment Binders                                             

            Guar Gum                                                      

            Sodium Alginate                                             

            Sodium/Zinc Formaldehyde Sulphoxylate    

            Styrene Butadiene Rubber - Lattices            

            Formaldehyde Based Resins                          

            Industry Trends and Outlook                         

            Indian Scenario                                              

            Consumption Pattern of Flame Retardent     

            Printing Auxiliary                                           


9.  YARN PREPARATION                                       



            Quill Winding                                                 


            Slashing or Warp Sizing                                

            Drawing-In and Tying-In                                

10.  Weaving AND WOVEN FABRICS               


            Woven Fabrics                                                

            Plain Weave                                                    

            Rib Weaves                                                     

            Basket Weaves                                               

            Twill Weaves                                                   

            Satin Weaves                                                 

            Drawing-In Draft, Chain and Reed Plans      

            Cover Factor                                                   

            Other Terms Related to Single Fabrics          



            Filling Insertion                                              


            Warp and Fabric Control                               

            The Weaving Cycle                                         

            Woven Fabric Production                               

            Secondary Mechanisms (Motions) In A

            Power Loom                                                    

            Warp Stop Motions                                         

            Filling Stop Motions                                       

            Warp Protector Motion                                   

            Selvage Motion                                               

            Box Motion                                                     

            Automatic Filling Transfer                             

            Shuttleless Looms                                          


            Rapier Looms                                                  

            Projectile (Gripper) Looms                              

            Fluid Jet Looms                                              

            New Weaving Technologies - Multiple

            Shed Looms                                                    

            Filling Accumulation Systems                       

            Modification of the Salvege                            

11.  Knitting AND KNIT FABRICS                   


            Knitting Elements                                          

            Needles and Knitting Action                          


            Weft Knitting                                                  

           Single Knitting                                                

            Single Knit Fabrics                                         

            Double Knitting                                              

            Double Knit Fabrics                                       

            Purl Knit Fabrics                                            

            Knit, Tuck and Float Loops                            

            Weft Knit Design                                            

            Stitch Notation                                               

            Weft Knit Fabrics                                           

            Weft Knitted Fabric Production                      

            Warp Knitting                                                 


            Major Machine Classification                        

            Knitting Elements                                          

            Warp Knitting Action                                     

            Comparison between Tricot and Raschel      

            Warp Knit Design                                           

            Point Paper Notation                                      

            Single Bar Fabric                                           

            Two Bar Fabrics                                             

            Warp Knit Fabric Production                         

12.  NonconVENTIONAL FABRICS                   


            Nonwoven Systems and Fabrics                    

            Chemically or Adhesively Bonded Fabrics     

            Mechanically Bonded Fabrics                        



            Laminated and Bonded Fabrics                     

            Wet Adhesive Bonding                                   

            Foam Flame Bonding                                     


13.  Synthetic Substrates                           


            Diverse synthetic substrates                         

            Monozao Dyestuffs                                         

            Water-Insoluble Monoazo Dyestuffs               

            Mixture of Monoazo Dyestuffs for


            Azo Containing Compounds                           

            Water-Soluble Disazo Dyestuffs for


            Gold and Orange Prints on Polyamides         

            Azocoumarinic Dyes for Hydrophobia


            Dyestuffs Tolerant to Temperature and pH


            Printing of Nickel-Containing Polyolefins      


14.  Natural And Synthetic



           Polyfluoro Acid Anthraquinone Dyestuffs for


            Fibre Reactive Anthraquinone Compounds   

            Aminoan Thraquinone Reactive Disperse

            Azo Compounds                                              

            Naphtheylene and Tetrahydronaphthylene- containing Azo Dyestuffs        

            Monoazo Dyestuff Containing Fiber-

            Reactive Group                                               

            Cold Water soluble Acid Dye Compositions   

            Polyvalent Metal and Azo-Barbituric Acid     

            Anionic and Cationic Dyes                             

            Fluid and Stable Dispersions of Anionic


            Heterocyclic Cationic Dyestuffs                     

            Water-soluble Quaternary Ammonium

            Phenylazo Cationic Dyes                                


15.  Cellulosics                                            

            Reactive Dyes                                                 

            Organic Dye with Phosphonic Acid                            


            Aminonaphthyl Azobenzene Vinyl Rective


            Phthalocyanine Reactive Dyestuffs                

            Water-Soluble Fiber-Reactive Dyestuffs        

            Disperse Dyes                                                 

            Fixation with Aliphatic Alcohols, Amines, or             


            Azo Dyes having Substituted 2, 6-Diaminopye

            Coupling Component                                     

            Acylating Cellulose Fibers



16.  Mixed Fibers                                            

            Polyester and Wool                                         

            Tone-in-Tone Dyeing of Polyester-Wool


            Cellulosics and Synthetic Polyamides           

            Marked Reactive Dyestuff                              

            Swellable Cellulosics and Synthetics            

            Ethoxylated Condensate of Monocarboxylic

            Acid and Hydroxyalkylamine                         

            Water-soluble Solvent and Swelling Agent    

            Disazo Dyes Derived from Amino-pyrazole     

            Unformed Disperse Dye and Swelling Agent  

            Cellulosics and Synthetics                            

            Unformed Disperse Dye with Reactive Dye    

            Textile Treated with Epoxy-group-containing


           Impregnation with an Aqueous


            Blends of Natural and Synthetic Fibers        

17.  PRINTING COMPOSITIONS                        

            Printing Pastes with Developing Dyes            

            Improved Base Printing Process                    

            Formic Acid as Developing Medium for

            Azo Dyes                                                         

            Auxiliary Agents in Print Formulations         

            Hydroxyalkyl Carboxyalkyl Cellulose

            Thickening Agent                                           

            Sodium Cellulose Sulfate as Thickening and Acid Fixing Agent       

            Additive for Pigmentary Printing Pastes        

            Salts of Diaryl Ether Sulfonic Acids               

            Carrier for Cationic Dyes                               

            Dye Carrier Comprising Phenyl Cyclohexane and Derivatives         

18.  PRINTING PROCESSES                               


            Fixation with Vapor of Organic Solvent         

            Dyestuffs for Methylene Chloride Fixation


            Improved Fixation of Reactive Dyes on

            Cellulose Fibers                                              

            Continuous Dyeing and Printing of Piece


            Printing Heavy Pile Fabrics with Powder


            Improved Alignment of Printed Patterns        

            Uniform Heat-setting of Continuous Synthet

            Filament Groups                                            

            Voluminous Substrate Rolled up with

            Foramed Dye                                                  

            Continuous Printing Process by Direct Liqui

            Film Transfer Method for Printing and Flocking       


            Sprayed Carriers for Continuous Print



19.  TRANSFER DYES                                      


            Anthraquinone Ink Formulation                    

            Anthraquinone Dyes for Synthetics              

            Deep Yellow Colors on Polyesters                   

            Indolenine Methines for Acid-modified


            Heterocyclic Naphthalene Derivatives           

            Printing Polyacrylonitriles with Disperse


            Disperse Dyes Containing Carboxylic Acid


            Hydrolyzable Silyl-substituted Dyestuffs       

            Nitroacridone Dyestuffs                                 

            Heat Transfer Black Dyestuff A                     

            Heat Transfer Black Dyestuff B                     

            Dyestuff Combinations for Long-Pile


20.  TRANSFER INKS                                         

            Organic Base                                                  

            Cationic Dyes in Organic Solvents                

            Carbinol Base of Cationic Dyestuff as

            Dyestuff Intermediate                                     

            These Inks are characterized in that they contain at Least 

            Sublimable Dyestuff Base on Acid-Modified


            Aqueous and Oil in Water                              

            Aqueous Preparations of Sparingly Soluble


            Organic-aqueous Printing Inks                      

            Water-dilutable Transfer Ink Compositions  

            Dry Preparation                                              

            Hot-Melt and Hot-Stamp Inks                        

            Hot-Melt Ink Composition                              

            N-Methoxymethylated Nylon Copolymer for

            Hot-Stamp Ink                                                

            Production of Transfer Paper by Rotary

            Screen Printing                                              

            Transfer Inks for Household Use                   

            Inks of High Filler Content                             

            UV-curable Inks For Offset-printing






NIIR PROJECT CONSULTANCY SERVICES (NPCS) is a reliable name in the industrial world for offering integrated technical consultancy services. NPCS is manned by engineers, planners, specialists, financial experts, economic analysts and design specialists with extensive experience in the related industries.

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The report first focuses on enhancing the basic knowledge of the entrepreneur about the main product, by elucidating details like product definition, its uses and applications, industry segmentation as well as an overall overview of the industry sector in India. The report then helps an entrepreneur identify the target customer group of its product. It further helps in making sound investment decision by listing and then elaborating on factors that will contribute to the growth of product consumption in India and also talks about the foreign trade of the product along with the list of top importing and top exporting countries. Report includes graphical representation and forecasts of key data discussed in the above mentioned segment. It further explicates the growth potential of the product.

The report includes other market data like key players in the Industry segment along with their contact information and recent developments. It includes crucial information like raw material requirements, list of machinery and manufacturing process for the plant. Core project financials like plant capacity, costs involved in setting up of project, working capital requirements, projected revenue and profit are further listed in the report.

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Our Market Survey cum Detailed Techno Economic Feasibility Report Contains following information:



Ø  Introduction

·         Project Introduction

·         Project Objective and Strategy

·         Concise History of the Product

·         Properties

·         BIS (Bureau of Indian Standards) Provision & Specification

·         Uses & Applications


Ø  Market Study and Assessment

·         Current Indian Market Scenario

·         Present Market Demand and Supply

·         Estimated Future Market Demand and Forecast

·         Statistics of Import & Export

·         Names & Addresses of Existing Units (Present Players)

·         Market Opportunity


Ø  Raw Material

·         List of Raw Materials

·         Properties of Raw Materials

·         Prescribed Quality of Raw Materials

·         List of Suppliers and Manufacturers


Ø  Personnel (Manpower) Requirements

·         Requirement of Staff & Labor (Skilled and Unskilled) Managerial, Technical, Office Staff and Marketing Personnel


Ø  Plant and Machinery

·         List of Plant & Machinery

·         Miscellaneous Items

·         Appliances & Equipments

·         Laboratory Equipments & Accessories

·         Electrification

·         Electric Load & Water

·         Maintenance Cost

·         Sources of Plant & Machinery (Suppliers and Manufacturers)


Ø  Manufacturing Process and Formulations

·         Detailed Process of Manufacture with Formulation

·         Packaging Required

·         Process Flow Sheet Diagram


Ø  Infrastructure and Utilities

·         Project Location

·         Requirement of Land Area

·         Rates of the Land

·         Built Up Area

·         Construction Schedule

·         Plant Layout and Requirement of Utilities


Project at a Glance

Along with financial details as under:


  •     Assumptions for Profitability workings

  •    Plant Economics

  •    Production Schedule

  •    Land & Building

            Factory Land & Building

            Site Development Expenses

  •    Plant & Machinery

             Indigenous Machineries

            Other Machineries (Miscellaneous, Laboratory etc.)

  •    Other Fixed Assets

            Furniture & Fixtures

            Pre-operative and Preliminary Expenses

            Technical Knowhow

            Provision of Contingencies

  •   Working Capital Requirement Per Month

             Raw Material

            Packing Material

            Lab & ETP Chemical Cost

           Consumable Store

  •   Overheads Required Per Month And Per Annum

         Utilities & Overheads (Power, Water and Fuel Expenses etc.)

             Royalty and Other Charges

            Selling and Distribution Expenses

  •    Salary and Wages

  •    Turnover Per Annum

  •   Share Capital

            Equity Capital

            Preference Share Capital


  •    Annexure 1:: Cost of Project and Means of Finance

  •    Annexure 2::  Profitability and Net Cash Accruals


                Expenses/Cost of Products/Services/Items

                Gross Profit

                Financial Charges     

                Total Cost of Sales

                Net Profit After Taxes

                Net Cash Accruals

  •   Annexure 3 :: Assessment of Working Capital requirements

                Current Assets

                Gross Working. Capital

                Current Liabilities

                Net Working Capital

                Working Note for Calculation of Work-in-process

  •    Annexure 4 :: Sources and Disposition of Funds

  •    Annexure 5 :: Projected Balance Sheets

                ROI (Average of Fixed Assets)

                RONW (Average of Share Capital)

                ROI (Average of Total Assets)

  •    Annexure 6 :: Profitability ratios


                Earnings Per Share (EPS)


             Debt Equity Ratio

        Annexure 7   :: Break-Even Analysis

                Variable Cost & Expenses

                Semi-Var./Semi-Fixed Exp.

                Profit Volume Ratio (PVR)

                Fixed Expenses / Cost 


  •   Annexure 8 to 11:: Sensitivity Analysis-Price/Volume

            Resultant N.P.B.T

            Resultant D.S.C.R

   Resultant PV Ratio

   Resultant DER

  Resultant ROI

          Resultant BEP

  •    Annexure 12 :: Shareholding Pattern and Stake Status

        Equity Capital

        Preference Share Capital

  •   Annexure 13 :: Quantitative Details-Output/Sales/Stocks

        Determined Capacity P.A of Products/Services

        Achievable Efficiency/Yield % of Products/Services/Items 

        Net Usable Load/Capacity of Products/Services/Items   

       Expected Sales/ Revenue/ Income of Products/ Services/ Items   

  •    Annexure 14 :: Product wise domestic Sales Realisation

  •    Annexure 15 :: Total Raw Material Cost

  •    Annexure 16 :: Raw Material Cost per unit

  •    Annexure 17 :: Total Lab & ETP Chemical Cost

  •    Annexure 18  :: Consumables, Store etc.,

  •    Annexure 19  :: Packing Material Cost

  •    Annexure 20  :: Packing Material Cost Per Unit

  •    Annexure 21 :: Employees Expenses

  •    Annexure 22 :: Fuel Expenses

  •    Annexure 23 :: Power/Electricity Expenses

  •    Annexure 24 :: Royalty & Other Charges

  •    Annexure 25 :: Repairs & Maintenance Exp.

  •    Annexure 26 :: Other Mfg. Expenses

  •    Annexure 27 :: Administration Expenses

  •    Annexure 28 :: Selling Expenses

  •    Annexure 29 :: Depreciation Charges – as per Books (Total)

  •   Annexure 30   :: Depreciation Charges – as per Books (P & M)

  •   Annexure 31   :: Depreciation Charges - As per IT Act WDV (Total)

  •   Annexure 32   :: Depreciation Charges - As per IT Act WDV (P & M)

  •   Annexure 33   :: Interest and Repayment - Term Loans

  •   Annexure 34   :: Tax on Profits

  •   Annexure 35   ::Projected Pay-Back Period And IRR