Pesticides are substances meant for attracting, seducing, and then destroying, or mitigating any pest. They are a class of biocide. The most common use of pesticides is as plant protection products (also known as crop protection products), which in general protect plants from damaging influences such as weeds, plant diseases or insects. Pesticides are used to control organisms that are considered to be harmful. For example, they are used to kill mosquitoes that can transmit potentially deadly diseases like West Nile virus, yellow fever, and malaria. They can also kill bees, wasps or ants that can cause allergic reactions. Insecticides can protect animals from illnesses that can be caused by parasites such as fleas. An insecticide is a substance used to kill insects. They include ovicides and larvicides used against insect eggs and larvae, respectively. Insecticides are used in agriculture, medicine, industry and by consumers. Insecticides can be classified in different ways-Plant-incorporated Protestants, Systemic, and Inorganic. Fungicides are biocide chemical compounds or biological organisms used to kill or inhibit fungi or fungal spores. Fungi can cause serious damage in agriculture, resulting in critical losses of yield, quality, and profit. Fungicides are used both in agriculture and to fight fungal infections in animals. Few fungicides move to all parts of a plant. Some are locally systemic, and some move upwardly. Fungicide residues have been found on food for human consumption, mostly from post-harvest treatments. Some fungicides are dangerous to human health, such as vinclozolin, which has now been removed from use. A number of fungicides are also used in human health care. Herbicides, also commonly known as weed killers, are pesticides used to kill unwanted plants. Herbicides are widely used in agriculture and landscape turf management. In the US, they account for about 70% of all agricultural pesticide use. Selective herbicides kill specific targets, while leaving the desired crop relatively unharmed. Some of these act by interfering with the growth of the weed and are often synthetic mimics of natural plant hormones. Herbicide resistance became a critical problem after many Australian sheep farmers began to exclusively grow wheat in their pastures in the 1970s. Introduced varieties of ryegrass, while good for grazing sheep, compete intensely with wheat. Ryegrasses produce so many seeds that, if left unchecked, they can completely choke a field. Herbicides provided excellent control, while reducing soil disrupting because of less need to plough. Most herbicides are applied as water-based sprays using ground equipment. Ground equipment varies in design, but large areas can be sprayed using self-propelled equipped with long booms, of 60 to 80 feet (18 to 24 m) with flat-fan nozzles spaced about every 20 inches (510 mm).
India’s global rank is fourth as a supplier of agrochemicals in the global market, after USA, Japan and China thereby indicating the significance of agrochemical industries in India. Indian crop protection market was estimated at $ 3.8 billion in FY12 with exports constituting about 50% of the market. The crop protection market has experienced strong growth in the past and is expected to grow further at approximate 12% p.a. to reach $ 6.8 billion by FY17. Indian crop protection industry is largely dominated by insecticides which form about 65% of share of the industry. Other segments like herbicides, fungicides and other (rodenticides/ nematocides) form 16%, 15% and 4%.
The Complete Technology Book on Pesticides, Insecticides, Fungicides and Herbicides with Formulae & Processes describes the detailed information on the subject. The major contents of this book are-Specification of Pesticides, Pesticides and Insecticides, Permeability of Liquid Fumigants through Polyethylene, A New Design of Insecticide Testing Chamber, Pest Control by Sex Attractants, Standards on Pesticides and Pest Control Equipment, List of Dealers/Agents Dealing with Pesticides / Insecticides / Fungicides / Herbicides etc.
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