Energy is the key factor in economic development of country. As we approach the turn of century, our requirements of energy will increase rapidly and vastly. Though there are several alternative conventional as well as non-conventional energy sources have been developed, still world is facing energy crisis day by day and it will rise in the coming future with rapid increase in population as well as industrialization. Biomass should be termed not only as a potential renewable source of energy, but also as a renewable feedstock for chemicals, technologically, biomass can provide all the forms of energy and the products normally derived from fossil fuels.
Biomass is a resource that is present in a variety of different materials: wood, sawdust, cotton waste, paddy straw, seed waste, manure, paper waste, household waste, wastewater, etc. Biomass pellets are the most elaborate biofuel, and consist of small cylinders 6 to 10 mm in diameter and 10 to 30 mm in length that are obtained by pressing biofuels with binders, particles density obviously larger than what prior to compression that it may be up to 1.2~1.4g/cm3 with volume shrink 75% to 90%.
Modern bioenergy is being recognized as an increasingly important low-carbon resource by policy-makers around the world to meet climate policy targets. In India also, there is a clear recognition of the significant role of bioenergy in electricity generation as well as in other applications. Bioenergy (including traditional biomass) is the largest renewable energy source with 14% out of 18% renewable in the energy mix and supplies 10% of global energy supply. Most of this is consumed in developing countries for cooking and heating, using traditional cook stoves, with considerable impact on human health (indoor air pollution) and on the environment.