Grain processing, as exemplified by four milling, is essentially a physical process whereby the kernel is cleaned, adjusted to an appropriate moisture content and then mechanically reduced to the desired particle size to produce a four. Where appropriate, four production also involves fractionation not only to separate bran, germ and endosperm from each other but also assure the correct particle size of the milled endosperm. The process involves neither chemical nor thermal treatments and thus does not bring about decontamination of the grain itself. The milling process can bring about changes in the distribution of contaminants when comparing amounts within the grain and the resultant mill fractions.
Pulses: Pulses refer to the dried, edible seeds of leguminous crops. Pulses play a fundamental role as a low-fat source of protein and an essential component of traditional food baskets. These are most essential element for a well-balanced diet and major source of protein to vegetarian people of India. Pulses are generally used along with rice and Chapatti as Dal. Dal, garnished with onions, tomatoes and spices is an indispensable nibble in household. The various pulses are part of the normal diet of all vegetarians and are also used frequently by non-vegetarians too. They are the main sources of protein. The pulses are used for preparing hot dishes, sweet dishes and other varieties. Pulses are the most common diet part of Indian families. Dal is dry cereal, which is taken to fulfill the requirements of protein for a normal human being.
Rice: Agriculture is the main occupation of the rural population in West Bengal. Among various crops, rice is the principal food crop of the State. West Bengal is the largest producer of rice in the country with an annual output of around 150 Lakh Tonnes. The rice is obtained after hulling/dehusking of paddy in a rice mill. The paddy comprises of 65% milled rice, 24% husk, 5% bran layers. Paddy in its raw form cannot be consumed by human beings. It needs to be suitably processed for obtaining rice. Rice is one of the leading food crops of the world. However, a comparatively small amount of rice moves in world because a high percentage of the world rice crop is consumed in the countries where it is produced.
Groundnut: Seed is the basic input in agriculture. The quality of seed used by farmers determines the status of agriculture they practice. However, for maximum gain in productivity the use of both improved varieties and improved integrated crop management practices are required. Peanuts or groundnuts are a high value crop that can be marketed with little processing but are extremely versatile and can be used in a wide range of products. The oil can be used for cooking, they can be used as a shortening or as a base for confectioneries and they can be used to make peanut butter. There are two types of groundnut, a bush and a runner.
Major food grains basically used:
• Directly as food.
• For the production of starch, and starch to glucose.
• For the production of vegetable oil.
• For the production of protein rich food.
• For the production of cattle feed.
• In directly produced corn steep liquor which is used in the fermentation method as vitamin source or mineral source.
Food grains are generally contents Carbohydrate, protein, fiber, fat, minerals, vitamins and the moisture outer coats of food grains are make by basically cellulose fibre. On storing food grains loses the moisture and decay their quality. Cereal grains form very important items of food. Rice is the chief dietary staple for almost half of the world's populations. The main cereals consumed in India are rice, wheat and millets (jowar, bajra, ragi, etc.) They are the cheapest sources of calories. In view of the large amounts in which cereals are included in the diet, they form important sources of nutrients in an average Indian diet.
Cereals and grains processing market is expected to grow at a rate of 10.40% in the period 2020 to 2027. The rising consumption of food products is the major factor driving the growth of cereals and grains processing market in the period of 2020- 2027. Agriculture is the primary source of livelihood for about 58% of India’s population. Gross Value Added by agriculture, forestry, and fishing was estimated at Rs. 19.48 lakh crore (US$ 276.37 billion) in FY20. Share of agriculture and allied sectors in gross value added (GVA) of India at current prices stood at 17.8 % in FY20. Consumer spending in India will return to growth in 2021 post the pandemic-led contraction, expanding by as much as 6.6%.
Few Indian Major Players
1. Arvind Kumar Nand Kumar Ltd.
2. Baba Agro Food Ltd.
3. Chennai Gate Rice Inds. Pvt. Ltd.
4. D D International Pvt. Ltd.
5. Fortune Rice Ltd.
6. G P A Capital Foods Pvt. Ltd.
7. Buniyad Foods India Ltd.
8. Hari Bhog Foods Pvt. Ltd.