The most commonly used cement in the world is Portland cement, which is formed at high temperatures that chemically combine the ingredients into new components, including calcium silicates and calcium aluminates. When the cement clinkers are ground with approximately 5% gypsum, they form Portland cement. These compounds allow cement to set when combined with water and to form strong bonds that can withstand pressure, water immersion, and other elements. In the manufacture of Portland cement, clinker is lumps or nodules, usually 3-25 mm in diameter, produced by sintering limestone and alumino-silicate during the cement kiln stage. Cement clinkers are formed by the heat processing of cement elements in a kiln. Limestone, clay, bauxite, and iron ore sand in specific proportions are heated in a rotating kiln at 2,770Â° Fahrenheit (1,400Â° Celsius) until they begin to form cinder lumps, which are also known as cement clinkers. Cement clinkers are usually ground with gypsum to produce the fine powder later mixed with liquid to produce cement, although some manufacturers ship cement clinkers in their lump form to cut down on dust. Cement is heavily relied upon to produce mortar, grouts, and concrete, and cement clinkers are the first stage, post firing, in making cement. Cement has strong bonding qualities when mixed with gypsum and water to form a hydration reaction, and it forms approximately one tenth of concrete, mixed with rocks, sand, and other materials and used in building construction all over the world. Concretes high versatility makes it an ideal tool for building projects of all shapes and sizes, from skyscrapers to pool sides. Concrete can also be recycled when it has outlived its usefulness and converted back into cement clinkers through careful processing. Clinker is ground (usually with the addition of a little gypsum, that is, calcium sulfate dehydrate) to become Portland cement. It may also be combined with other active ingredients or chemical admixtures to produce: ground granulated blast furnace slag cement, pozzolana cement & silica fume cement. The cement industry is one of the main beneficiaries of the infrastructure boom. With robust demand and adequate supply, the industry has bright future. The Indian Cement Industry with total capacity of 165 million tones is the second largest after China. Cement industry is dominated by 20 companies who account for over 70% of the market. Individually no company accounts for over 12% of the market. The major players like L&T and ACC have been quiet successful in narrowing the gap between demand and supply. Private housing sector is the major consumer of cement (53%) followed by the government infrastructure sector. Similarly northern and southern region consume around 20%-30% cement while the central and western region are consuming only 18%-16%. India is the 2nd largest cement producer in world after china. Right from laying concrete bricks of economy to waving fly overs cement industry has shown and shows a great future. Domestic demand for cement has been increasing at a fast pace in India. Cement industry has contributed around 8% to the economic development of India. Outsiders (foreign players) eyeing India as a major market to invest in the form of either merger or FDI (Foreign Direct Investment). Cement industry has a long way to go as Indian economy is poised to grow because of being on verge of development. The company continues to emphasize on reduction of costs through enhanced productivity, reduction in energy costs and logistics expenses. The cement sector is expected to witness growth in line with the economic growth because of the strong co-relation with GDP. Future drivers of cement demand growth in India would be the road and housing projects. As per the Working Group report on Cement Industry for the formulation of the 11th Plan, the cement demand is likely to grow at 11.5 per cent per annum during the 11th Plan and cement production and capacity by the end of the 11th Plan are estimated to be 269 million tones and 298 million tones, respectively, with capacity utilization of 90 per cent. There is a very good scope in this sector and new entrepreneurs should venture into this field. Few Indian Major Players are as under: ACC Ltd. Almora Magnesite Ltd. Ambuja Cement Eastern Ltd. Ambuja Cement Rajasthan Ltd. Barak Valley Cements Ltd. Bhilai Jaypee Cement Ltd. Binani Cement Ltd. Birla Corporation Ltd. Cement Manufacturing Co. Ltd. Century Textiles & Inds. Ltd. Chettinad Cement Corpn. Ltd. Deccan Cements Ltd. Dhar Cement Ltd. Greygold Cements Ltd. Gujarat High Tech Inds. Ltd. Gujarat Sidhee Cement Ltd. Heidelberg Cement India Ltd. Hemadri Cements Ltd. India Cements Ltd. Keerthi Industries Ltd. Lafarge India Pvt. Ltd. Lemos Cements Ltd. Malabar Cements Ltd. Mangalam Cement Ltd. Meghalaya Cement Ltd. My Home Inds. Ltd. N C L Industries Ltd. Namo Cements Ltd. Narmada Cement Co. Ltd. Penna Cement Inds. Ltd. Rain Commodities Ltd. Ramco Industries Ltd. Rishi Cement Co. Ltd. Sagar Cements Ltd. Sainik Finance & Inds. Ltd. Sanghi Industries Ltd. Saurashtra Cement Ltd. Shaktiman Cements Ltd. Shiva Cement Ltd. Shree Digvijay Cement Co. Ltd. Shri Hariganga Cement Ltd. Snhehadhara Industries Ltd. Sorabh Cement Ltd. Sparta Cements & Infra Ltd. Sri Vishnu Cement Ltd. Srichakra Cements Ltd. Sudarshan Cement & Multiprojects Ltd. Tata Chemicals Ltd. Ultratech Cement Ltd. Vinay Cements Ltd. Virgo Cements Ltd. Visaka Cement Industry Ltd. Zuari Cement Ltd.