Dish antenna, also known simply as a dish, is common in microwave systems. This type of antenna can be used for satellite communication and broadcast reception, space communications, radio astronomy, and radar.
A dish antenna consists of an active, or driven, element and a passive parabolic or spherical reflector. The driven element can be a dipole antenna or a horn antenna. If a horn is used, it is aimed back at the center of the reflecting dish. The reflector has a diameter of at least several wavelengths. As the wavelength increases (and the frequency decreases), the minimum required dish diameter becomes larger. A dish antenna is usually operated with an unbalanced feed line. For satellite television reception, coaxial cable is used. In applications such as radar where a high-power signal is transmitted, a feed system is preferred.
Satellite communications equipment is used for the transmission, conditioning, and reception of satellite signals in worldwide telecommunications. General specifications include product type, mounting style, and connector type or interface. Impedance is also an important parameter to consider. In terms of performance, satellite communications equipment differs in terms of frequency, operating voltage, output power, and gain, return loss, operating temperature, and operating humidity. Products with features such as remote control, an integrated heat sink, and an embedded power supply are commonly available.