EMD is a complex composite of various crystals of manganese and oxygen that is produced through electro-winning. It is used primarily as the active constituent of alkaline batteries and increasingly as the feedstock for the cathodic material in lithium-ion batteries. The structure of EMD is highly disordered, but predominantly made up of the manganese dioxide crystal ramsdellite, depicted here, with the red balls signifying the oxygen atoms in the green manganese dioxide crystal lattice. Electrolytic manganese dioxide is a high purity product with molecular formula MnO2 that possesses the â€˜recipe specificâ€™ electrical characteristics desired by battery producers. Natural manganese dioxide (NMD) can be used in the Leclanche cells. But in alkaline, lithium and other batteries, synthetic managanese dioxide with higher purity is required. Electrolytic manganese dioxide (EMD) is used as a cathode mixture material for dry cell batteries, such as alkaline batteries, zinc-carbon batteries rechargeable alkaline batteries. Among the large variety of manganese dioxides, y-type managanese dioxide is extensively used, as y-variety compounds have high intercalation voltage. They have the ability to maintain high discharge rates, a good performance over a wide temperature range and have a long storage life. EMD is stable under normal temperature conditions. ELECTROLYTIC MAGNESIUM DIOXIDE NUCLEATION: Electrolytic manganese dioxide has been used worldwide in the manufacture of primary ZnMnO2 alkaline and Lechlanche type cells for decades. Their low cost and reliability impair their replacement by higher performance and secondary batteries. The performance of these batteries depends on the manufacture method of the manganese oxide due to the variation of the properties of the oxide with its crystallite size, density of lattice imperfections and extent of hydration. Sometimes the intercalation of lithium ions is carried out to improve performance characteristics of MnO2, for high energy density and high drain power application. Electrolytic manganese dioxide are doped with Bi, Pb and Ti ions is used for the manufacture of rechargeable alkaline manganese oxide cells. These ions are known to stabilize the MnO2 lattice towards dimensional changes that occur during charging and discharging cycles of the cells. The production of EMD is carried out through the electrolysis of hot MnSO4 and sulphuric acid solutions. Stainless steel or lead is the materials normally used as cathode, where hydrogen evolution takes place. Carbon, lead or titanium can be used as anode. Titanium anodes are preferred because the EMD is purer than that obtained with carbon and lead anodes. MARKET SCENARIO: As electric vehicles penetrate the auto market, EMD demand stands to benefit. The launch of electric cars and their expanding production is expected to increase demand for EMD for use in lithium-ion secondary batteries cathodes of the lithium manganese oxide and tertiary compound type. The highest potential growth segment for EMD is in large scale rechargeable batteries used in electric vehicles and electronics. At present, the rechargeable manganese battery segments account for less than 10% of total EMD demand. Alkaline batteries are a low growth end use, expected to track well below GDP growth rates over the forecast period. In small scale electronics, EMD use projected at historical growth rates of 4%. EMD is mostly used in alkaline and other small scale, consumer electronic batteries. World demand is estimated around 3,50,000 metric tonnes per annum in 2012 with growth rate in demand around 5%.