A fiber cable is a structure for enclosing a fiber to enable it to maintain its performance for sufficient time in the operating environment in which it is required to work. One might envisage undemanding applications where a fiber with a simple coating might be perfectly adequate and would provide a high capacity cable of very small dimensions. However, cables more commonly have to operate in environments where a fiber with so little protection could not be expected to survive for long, even if it is possible to introduce the fiber into the environment without breakage. In general, then, we are concerned with a much sturdier structure.
The cable will be required to withstand the forces upon it during storage, installation, and operation. During storage or transit it may be subjected to considerable heat from solar radiation, to extreme cold, and to rain or very high humidity.
Types of Optical Fibers
The types of optical fibers depend on the refractive index, materials used, and mode of propagation of light.
The classification based on the refractive index is as follows:
Step Index Fibers: It consists of a core surrounded by the cladding, which has a single uniform index of refraction.
Graded Index Fibers: The refractive index of the optical fiber decreases as the radial distance from the fiber axis increases.
The classification based on the materials used is as follows:
Plastic Optical Fibers: The polymethylmethacrylate is used as a core material for the transmission of the light.
Glass Fibers: It consists of extremely fine glass fibers.
The classification based on the mode of propagation of light is as follows:
Single-Mode Fibers: These fibers are used for long-distance transmission of signals.
Multimode Fibers: These fibers are used for short-distance transmission of signals.
The global fiber optic cable market was valued at USD 7,578.1 million in 2019, and it is expected to reach USD 16,390.6 million by 2025, registering a CAGR of 14.5% during the period, 2020-2025. Increasing demand in FTTX and telecommunications industry and technological advancements are primarily responsible for the increased growth of the market.
Major telecommunication operators and government authorities have delayed the installation of fiber optic cables on account of the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic, leading to the postponement of testing services. COVID-19 will lead to a sharp decrease in wire and cable demand globally throughout 2020 owing to the reduction in fixed investments, industrial activities, and private consumption. The US, China, and Europe have announced delays in 5G rollouts, with optical fiber cabling demand is likely to fall in 2020. Hence, this is going to impact the installation of fiber optic cables, leading to a decrease in their demand across the world.
The market consumption over the last two years has been less than 6 Mn Km, Indian fiber manufacturing capacity is on a rise. Capacity for FOC (Fiber Optic Cable) manufacturing in India is approximately 8, 00,000 Cable KM. More global players are eyeing to setup their plants or have tie-ups in India. Thus India can domestically meet the upcoming requirements for National Optical Fiber Network.
By types, the fiber optic cable market is segmented into single-mode and multi-mode. Single-mode fiber networks use wave-division multiplexing (WDM) to transfer to increase the data traffic to be sent among the strand. Multi-mode cables use WDM to transfer data at differing speeds to certain various types of customers. Entrepreneurs who invest in this project will be successful.