Glass has a microscopic structure similar to that of a liquid, where the various components come together to form an erratic network with no long-range order. A cooled melt is also referred to as glass.
The primary component of everyday products that are transparent is flat glass. It is used to create solar energy equipment like solar thermal panels and photovoltaic modules, as well as windscreens and windows for vehicles and other forms of transportation, windows, and building facades. In considerably lower amounts, it is also used for numerous other things, including furniture, "street furniture" (such bus stops), appliances, electronics, and interior fittings and decorating. This substance is essential to contemporary society. However, because of its special attribute, transparency, individuals frequently overlook it and the benefits it provides to their life.
All amorphous materials that are formed by lowering the temperature of a melt, regardless of its chemical makeup or the temperature range at which it solidifies, are referred to as glass. Glass acquires the mechanical qualities of a solid body due to the steady increase in viscosity. The melting point of glass is between 1000 and 2000 °C.
Uses and Application
Glass in Commercial Buildings
Large commercial buildings may now be made energy-efficient structures that maximize natural sunshine while preserving the environment, the climate, and saving energy thanks to advancements in glass technology.
Glass in Residential Houses
In comparison to other building materials like brick, polycarbonate, or wood, glass demonstrates to be a really appealing and contemporary choice. The amount of glass utilized determines how much natural light enters the house. With today's high-tech glass solutions, this improves the home's comfort and pleasantness without compromising environmental sustainability, security, or safety.
Glass offers innovative interior design options that can enhance a room's sense of light and space while also adding colour and movement. Modern glass technology's ability to produce glass with high strength allows for more useful and even structural uses for this appealing material than just ornamental ones.
Glass in photovoltaic applications
Utilizing photovoltaic systems, solar energy is directly converted into electricity. From home systems to utility size, a wide range of technologies are available to meet specific objectives. The variety of shapes and colours available for photovoltaic panels provides freedom for design integration and developing integrated applications (BIPV).
Thin film is one of the other photovoltaic methods, where solar cells are produced on glass in a series of thin films. Transparent conductive coated glass can be employed in these technologies as the front glass on which the films are developed. The photoactive films are illuminated by the conductive coating, which also carries the power produced by the modules outside of them.
Other Glass Applications
In addition to the major architectural, transportation, and solar energy applications previously mentioned, flat glass is utilized in numerous other applications as well. These real-world examples show how glass can be a source of convenience, fashion, well-being, security, and safety.
Appliances for the home, workplace equipment, and other uses frequently employ flat glass. Tempered glass is used for oven doors, which are designed to withstand extremely high temperatures. Drilled, silk-screened, and tempered glass is used to make stove tops and control panels in order to give high levels of thermal and mechanical safety as well as a beautiful appearance. In order to withstand shocks and prevent spills, refrigerators have shelves made of silk-screened, tempered, edged, and clipped glass. The drums and panels of dishwashers, washing machines, and dryers all have tempered glass. The glare that reflects off of televisions, computer screens, glass cases, and other electronic displays is lessened by using anti-reflective glass. To assist document imaging, photocopiers, scanners, and fax machines all require highly transparent glass sheets.
Glass is incredibly strong and minimal maintenance because it is not damaged by moisture and has a good resistance to wear and scratches. It also gives unique aesthetic options to furniture designers. The majority of household furnishings, including coffee tables, dining tables, bookcases and shelves, TV units, media storage, office furniture, lighting, aquariums, and other accessories, can be built of or include glass. Because it reflects and transmits light rather than absorbing it, glass furniture is especially well-suited for spaces where the amount of light is to be maximized. Additionally, it gives a vivid, bright appearance, improving both the perceived and actual lighting in a space.
Time, distance, and shielding are the three guiding concepts of radiation protection. Glass is an effective radiation shielding material for various radiation types. Leaded glass is frequently used in X-ray facilities as operator protection, and PET-scan (positron emission tomography) equipment also includes radiation-protective glass. Additionally, there is special glass designed to defend against nuclear radiation that is used to create viewing windows for nuclear power plants. Glass is utilized for radiation-shielding windows in the nuclear industry in the form of substantial blocks, some of which can weigh over 4 tones. Cerium oxide can be added to lead and non-lead containing glasses to prevent radiation-induced browning.
In 2021, the Indian flat glass market is expected to be worth over $3 billion. The market is anticipated to grow at a CAGR of about 7.9 percent between 2022 and 2027. A surge in the flat glass market is projected in the upcoming years due to a growing global building and automotive industry. Additionally, rising public spending on renewable energy sources would boost demand for flat glass used in solar applications. In the near future, market revenue growth is anticipated to be boosted by a large increase in the construction industry. Rapid urbanization along with a booming industrial sector are boosting India's flat glass market's expansion. Additionally, the growing use of flat glass across a variety of end uses, including the construction and automotive industries, is helping to boost overall sales. In addition, top producers are making investments in research and development (R&D) to create and market superior flat glass. Additionally, the country's market is expanding due to expanding infrastructure projects and rising business sector demand. The market for flat glass is also being aided by government authorities' growing encouragement of the construction of green buildings.
The market for flat glass was estimated at USD 273.43 billion in 2021, and from 2022 to 2030, it is anticipated to expand at a CAGR of 4.3 percent. Over the forecast period, market expansion is anticipated to be fueled by the rising number of solar energy installations around the world as well as the increasing use of glass architecture in both residential and non-residential projects. The industry is expanding as a result of factors such the depletion of renewable resources, government regulations, increased environmental concerns, lower installation costs for solar energy systems, technological improvements, and rising electricity demand.
Industry Major Market Players:
· AGC Inc.
· NSG Group
· Guardian Industries
· Şişecam Group
· Taiwan Industry Glass Corporation
· Fuyao Glass Industry Group
· Vitro, S.A.B. De CV
· Central Glass
· CSG Holdings Co. Ltd.
Other key players