Fly ash, also known as flue-ash, is one of the residues generated in combustion, and comprises the fine particles that rise with the flue gases. Ash which does not rise is termed bottom ash. In an industrial context, fly ash usually refers to ash produced during combustion of coal. Fly ash is generally captured by electrostatic precipitators or other particle filtration equipment before the flue gases reach the chimneys of coal-fired power plants, and together with bottom ash removed from the bottom of the furnace is in this case jointly known as coal ash. Depending upon the source and makeup of the coal being burned, the components of fly ash vary considerably, but all fly ash includes substantial amounts of silicon dioxide (SiO2) (both amorphous and crystalline) and calcium oxide (CaO) but may include toxic constituents in quantities from trace amounts to several percent such as: arsenic, beryllium, boron, cadmium, chromium, hexavalent chromium, cobalt, lead, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, selenium, strontium, thallium, and vanadium, along with dioxins and PAH compounds. In the past, fly ash was generally released into the atmosphere, but pollution control equipment mandated in recent decades now requires that it be captured prior to release. In the US, fly ash is generally stored at coal power plants or placed in landfills. About 43% is recycled, often used to supplement Portland cement in concrete production. Market Survey It is estimated that the total mineral wealth of flyash is approx. of the order of Rs.30,000 crore/year which is expected to grow 2.5 times by the end of the century. Significance of this area could well be understood from the fact that, just 1 million ton of flyash if put to use for different high value added applications has the potential of yielding a total turnover of Rs.500 crore per year. By contrast, if the same amount of flyash is to be used for say manufacturing of bricks, the total output may be to the tune of just Rs.25 crore. Current market investigation on the utilization of various flyash & application in the country is virtually absent for commercial applications. It can be concluded that currently there is a negligible market for these products though the potential may be substantial. The market prospects for high value added product is not easy to determine as the product is not in commercial use and the technology is in its early stages of commercialization. However, the market potential has been indicated for the products, that it may substitute in future. The total market potential that exists for high value added products by 2000 AD is estimated to be Rs.5000 crore. The actual market size has been estimated for metal extraction under two different scenarios assuming setting up of a 1 lakh ton and 1 million ton flyash processing plant.