Profile Goat is one of the worldâ€™s smallest domesticated livestock, have been actively managed for food and fiber earlier and longer than cattle and sheep. Goats can survive on bushes, trees, desert scrub, and vegetation that sheep and cattle are not able to consume. This dietary versatility and adaptability combined with a hardy constitution is what makes goats a primary livestock animal for most of the world. The goat; a mini cow is multipurpose animal to provide milk meat, hide, hair (fur) and manure for soil. In hilly areas goats are also used for hauling light load. Now in rural areas goat farming plays a vital role to solve unemployment. The economic return from keeping goats is high compared to other farming enterprises. Goats can reproduce under extreme conditions that would eliminate other species. They can live in hot, tropical climates as well as cool, temperate climates. They seem to be able to live and even flourish under desert conditions. These factors have made goats a very important domestic animal. Goat farming can be a profitable occupation of a farmer and can be fit well into mixed farming. Classification of Goats The wild goats have four species as follows Ibex (Capra ibex), Spanish Idex (Capra pyrenacia), Markhor (Capra falconeri), and Wild Goat (Capra aegarus). On the basis of body weight goat breeds in India can be broadly classified as large sized (Jamunapari, Beetal, Jhakarana), mediusm sized (Sirohi or Marwari/Golwadi, Zalabari, Kitchi, Surti, Sangamneri, Osmanabadi, Gaddi, Ganjam, Chegu) and small sized (Bengal types, Assam hill goat). The scientific name of domestic goat is Capra hircus aegagrius. Advantages of Goat Farming / Utility of Goats: â€¢ The goat is a multipurpose animal producing meat, milk, hide, fiber and manure. In hilly areas, goats are also used for hauling light loads. â€¢ Goats have very few demands of housing and management. They hardly need separate housing and happily share their homes with their owners or his other livestock. â€¢ Goats can be raised by landless agricultural labourers, ladies and children because they can thrive well on variety of leaves, shrubs, bushes, kitchen waste etc. â€¢ Goat farming can be a profitable occupation for a farmer and can fit well into mixed farming. â€¢ Goats are cheaper to maintain, easily available and have a friendly disposition. â€¢ Goats are capable of adapting to various agro climatic conditions ranging from arid dry to cold arid to hot humid. They can be raised in plains, hilly tracts, sandy zones and at high altitudes. â€¢ Goats are more tolerant to hot climate than other farm animals. â€¢ Goats suffer from fewer ailments than other large animals. â€¢ Goats are called the foster mother of man, as their milk is considered better for human nutrition than other species of livestock. Milk is cheap, wholesome, easily digestible and nutritious. â€¢ Goat milk is finer than cow milk i.e. the fats and proteins are present in a finer state and are more easily digestible, especially by children and invalids. â€¢ Goat milk has lesser allergic problems than other species of livestock. â€¢ Goat milk is used as ayurvedic medicine for personas ailing with asthma, cough, diabetes etc. And has higher buffering qualities and this enhances its value for patients suffering from peptic ulcers, liver dysfunction, jaundice, billiard disorders and other digestive problems. â€¢ Goat hide is used for the manufacture of leather products. â€¢ Goat hairs are used for the manufacture of rugs and ropes. â€¢ Pashmina shawls, Mohair and Kashmere carpets are in great demand and are sold at very high prices. â€¢ Goat manure is 2.5 times richer in nitrogen and phosphoric acid than cow manure. Market Scenario The world population of goats is approximately 674 million, of which 94% are found in the developing countries. Africa and Asia account for about 81% of the total population in the developing countries, including a bewildering variety of breeds. Goat rearing is the backbone of economy of small and landless farmers in India. It is an insurance against crop failure and provides alternate source of livelihood to farmers all the year round. Goats play an important role in income generation, capital storage, employment generation and improving household nutrition. Goats are among the main meat-producing animals in India, whose meat (chevon) is one of the choicest meats and has huge domestic demand. Besides meat, goats provide other products like milk, skin, fibre and manure. Goats are important part of rural economy, particularly in the arid, semi arid and mountainous regions of the country with more than 124 million population. The largest amount of goat milk is produced in India, followed by Bangladesh and Sudan. China has the largest total number of goats in the world, but they are mainly kept for meat production. ?