Carbon black is made up of small particles that are mostly carbon. In the processing of carbon black, various properties are regulated by partially combusting oil or gases. Carbon black is commonly used in a variety of applications, ranging from newspaper inks' black coloring pigment to high-tech materials' electric conductive agent. Carbon black particles are spherical in form and crystalline less frequently than graphite. As carbon black is heated to 3,000° C (5,400° F) for an extended period of time, it transforms into graphite. Carbon blacks are among the most finely divided materials known, with particle sizes varying greatly depending on the manufacturing process.
Applications of Carbon Black:
Carbon black is a simple material with a long history of use as a coloring agent, dating back to before the birth of Christ. Carbon black is also being used in new fields such as electrical appliances and devices because it contains nano-particles with different functions such as ultra-violet absorption and conductivity. Carbon black, a well-known but relatively new commodity, has a variety of uses.
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1. Ink and Paint Coloring Agent: Carbon black is used in newspaper inks, printing inks, India inks, and paints since it has a stronger tinting ability than iron black or organic pigments. Carbon black is also used in inkjet inks and toners as a black dye.
2. Colorants for resins and films: Carbon black has a high tinting strength and is thermally stable, making it ideal for coloring heat-formed resins and films. When a small amount of carbon black is mixed with resins, it has a great ability to absorb ultraviolet light, offering excellent UV resistance as well as a coloring effect. Carbon black is commonly used to colour resins and films in general. Automobile bumpers, wire coverings, and steel pipe linings all use carbon black-based resins for their weather resistance.
3. Conductive Electricity: The graphite-type crystalline structure of carbon black particles provides excellent electric conductivity. Carbon black is used as a conductive filler in a variety of materials, including plastics, elastomers, paints, adhesives, films, and pastes. Electric conductivity is expected of fuel caps and fuel-introducing pipes in automobiles, for example, to prevent static. As a result, carbon black is widely used as an antistatic agent.
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4. Materials Concerning Electronic Equipment: Carbon black also has a stable resistance, which is why it's used in electronic devices including display components and magnetic recording media. In addition, Mitsubishi Chemical has been developing carbon black with a variety of combined functions for use in a variety of applications.
At temperatures ranging from 1320 to 1540°C (2400 to 2800°F), carbon black is formed by the reaction of a hydrocarbon fuel such as oil or gas with a restricted supply of combustion air. The unburned carbon is collected as a very fine black fluffy particle with a diameter of 10 to 500 nanometers (nm). Carbon black is primarily used as a reinforcing agent in rubber compounds (particularly tires) and as a pigment.
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1. Oil Furnace Phase - An aromatic liquid hydrocarbon feedstock is heated and continuously pumped into the combustion zone of a natural gas-fired furnace, where it decomposes to form carbon black. To prevent cracking, primary quench water cools the gases to 500°C (1000°F). By passing through heat exchangers and direct water sprays, the exhaust gases encasing the carbon particles are cooled to about 230°C (450°F). A cloth filter is used to isolate the black from the gas stream. The filter may be preceded by a cyclone for primary collection and particle agglomeration. Several manifolded furnaces are often served by a single collection method. Pulverizing and wet pelletizing increase the bulk density of the recovered carbon black to make it marketable. In a gas-fired rotary dryer, water from the wet pelletizer is removed. It is possible to use oil or process gas. Between 35 and 70 percent of the dryer's combustion gas is charged directly to the dryer's interior, with the remainder serving as an indirect heat source. The doctor Depending on the feed composition and the grade of black produced, process yields vary from 35 to 65 percent. The particle size and other physical and chemical properties of the black are determined by the furnace design and operating conditions. Large particle blacks produce the highest yields, while small particle blacks produce the lowest. Natural gas is thermally decomposed (cracked) into carbon particles, hydrogen, and a mixture of other organics in a cyclic procedure known as the thermal phase. In regular operation, two furnaces are used. The first produces carbon black and hydrogen by cracking natural gas. Water sprays cool the effluent gas from the first reactor to around 125°C (250°F), and the black is deposited in a cloth.
2. Thermal Process: The filtered gas (90 percent hydrogen, 6% methane, and 4% higher hydrocarbons) is used to heat a second reactor via a thermal process. The positions of the reactors are reversed when the first reactor becomes too cold to crack the natural gas feed, and the second reactor is used to crack the gas while the first is heated. In most cases, there is enough hydrogen generated to make the thermal black process self-sustaining, and the excess hydrogen is used to power boilers that supply process steam and electricity.
In 2020, the carbon black market was worth USD 15,495.32 million, and it is expected to develop at a CAGR of about 5.15 percent over the forecast period (2021-2026). The market was dominated by the tyres and industrial rubber products application segment, which is expected to expand over the forecast period. Because of its influence on the mechanical and dynamic properties of tyres, carbon black is one of the most commonly used reinforces in the tyre industry.
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Incomplete combustion of heavy petroleum products such as coal tar, FCC tar, or ethylene cracking tar produces carbon black. Process form, application, and geography are all used to segment the carbon black market. The market is divided into four types of processes: furnace black, gas black, lamp black, and thermal black. Tires and automotive rubber goods, plastics, toners and printing inks, paints and coatings, textile fabrics, and other applications make up the industry. The tyres and automotive rubber products application is the largest segment of the carbon black market, accounting for roughly 75% of total market share. Tires made of carbon black are used in automobiles. It's used as a filler as well as a reinforcing agent for power.
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It's used in a variety of tyre formulations with various rubber forms to customise tyre performance properties. The global tyre production volume reached 16.8 million metric tonnes in 2019, according to IRSG (International Rubber Study Group). Furthermore, from 2.36 billion units in 2019, the total global tyre market volume is forecast to hit 2.75 billion units by 2024. In light of COVID-19's effects, the global tyre industry is expected to recover slowly in 2021, with a substantial recovery beginning in 2022.
· Cabot Corp.
· Birla Carbon
· Tokai Carbon Co. Ltd.
· Continental Carbon Company
· Omsk Carbon Group
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