The development of hybrid varieties is most important achievement of application of genetics in crop improvement. In the coming years biotechnological tools have to play very crucial role in various ways including development of specific parental lines or hybrids in vegetables. Role of biotechnological tools like micropropagation, molecular markers, anther culture, cybridization, induced male sterility and transgenics in the production of specific parental lines or hybrids in vegetables. Micropropagation can be used for maintenance of male sterile lines either controlled by recessive genes (tomato, muskmelon, chilli) or dominant genes (cabbage); maintenance of self-incompatible lines in cole crops and maintenance of hybrids as such through tissue culture. Molecular markers can be used for assessment of genetic diversity, construction of linkage maps, varietal identiHcaton and marker assisted selection for traits of interest. Anther culture techniques can be utilized for development of self-incompatible lines in cole vegetables and also to develop inbred lines in cross-pollinated vegetables. Cybridization is used for single step transfer of cytoplasmic male sterility from potato to tomato by protoplast fusion and generation of noval cybrids in tomato. Induction of male sterility by the use of 'BarnaseBarstar' systerm of hybrids seed production, is universally applicable for economic hybrid seed production especially in those vegetable crops where male sterility is not available (e.g. okw).Genetic transformation techniques can be used for trait specific transgenic parental lines for hybrids.
Hybrid seeds market is growing at an incremental pace globally. Hybrid seeds are developed after cross pollination among different varieties of same plants. Cross pollination involves transferring the pollen from male to female. The hybrid seeds will produce similar plants, however the next generation seeds from the hybrids could differ in their characteristics. Hybrid seeds have specific characteristics such as pest and disease resistant, can adopt to environmental changes, and helps in enhancing crop productivity.
Clonal propagation and open pollination are alternatives to hybridization. Increase in usage of hybrid seeds with several advanced traits, such as pelleting & seed coatings, biological & mechanical innovations related to farms, an introduction of enhanced hybrid seed varieties, and decline in arable land, and diversification of diets are major factors that drive the market growth globally. Global population is estimated to reach 9 billion by 2050, and is expected to require twice the food, which could be produced from constant land area. More production is anticipated to be accomplished from less land only by using the combination of quality seeds, quality inputs, and enhancing farm practices. Increasing demand for foods owing to rapidly rising global population is one of the major factor fuelling the demand for the product. The land resource is limited and is shrinking over the years, thereby necessitating adoption of methods to enhance crop productivity. Usage of hybrid seeds is considered to be one of the effective method for augmenting crop production.