Polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH, PVA, or PVAl) is a water-soluble synthetic polymer (not to be confused with polyvinyl acetate, popular wood glue). Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) forms tough, clean films that have high tensile strength and abrasion resistance.lt is highly resistant to solvents, oils and grease. Polyvinyl alcohol is one of the few high molecular weight commercial polymers. Polyvinyl alcohol is produced commercially from polyvinyl acetate, usually by a continuous process. The acetate groups are hydrolyzed by ester interchange with methanol in the presence of anhydrous sodium methylate or aqueous sodium hydroxide. The physical characteristics and its specific functional uses depend on the degree of polymerization and the degree of hydrolysis. Polyvinyl alcohol is classified into two classes namely: partially hydrolyzed and fully hydrolyzed. Partially hydrolyzed PVA is used in the foods. Other names PVOH; Poly(Ethanol), Ethanol, homo polymer; PVA; Polyviol; Vinol; Alvyl; Alkotex; Covol; Gelvatol; Lemol; Mowiol Properties Appearance CAS No. Synonyms Commercially available in granular or powder form 9002-89-5 PVA, Polyvinol, Ethanol homopolymer Molecular Formula [-CH2CHOH-] n Odour Solubility Specific gravity PH Stability Density Melting point Boiling point Flash point Biodegradability Mild odour Moderately soluble 1.19 to 1.31 Aqueous solution is neutral or slightly acidic. Stable under ordinary conditions of use and storage 1.19-1.31 g/cm3 200oc 228o c 79.44oc PVA is a biodegradable, water-soluble synthetic polymer. The degradation products are water and carbon dioxide. Polyvinyl alcohol has excellent film forming, emulsifying and adhesive properties. It is also resistant to oil, grease and solvents. It is odourless and nontoxic. It has high tensile strength and flexibility, as well as high oxygen and aroma barrier properties. PVA is fully degradable and dissolves quickly. PVA has a melting point of 230Â°C and 180â€“190Â°C (356-374 degrees Fahrenheit) for the fully hydrolysed and partially hydrolysed grades, respectively. It decomposes rapidly above 200Â°C as it can undergo pyrolysis at high temperatures. PVA is an atactic material but exhibits crystallinity as the hydroxyl groups are small enough to fit into the lattice without disrupting it. PVA is close to incompressible. The Poisson's ratio has been measured to between 0.42 and 0.48. Applications Important application sectors include: 1. Paper adhesive with boric acid in spiral tube winding and solid board production 2. Thickener, modifier, in polyvinyl acetate glues 3. Textile sizing agent 4. Paper coatings, release liner, 5. as a water-soluble film useful for packaging. 6. Carbon dioxide barrier in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles 7. as a film used in the water transfer printing process 8. as a mold release because materials such as epoxy do not stick to it 9. Movie practical effect and children's play putty or slime when combined with borax 10. Used in eye drops and hard contact lens solution as a lubricant 11. PVA fiber, as reinforcement in concrete 12. As a surfactant for the formation of polymer encapsulated nano beads Grades The most common grade in each area of application is fully and partially hydrolyzed grades with a degree of polymerization of 1,700. Fully hydrolyzed grades Fully hydrolyzed grades are used mainly in paper coating, in textile warp sizing of hydrophilic fibers, such as cotton and rayon staple yarns and in laminating film in safety glass (after conversion to polyvinyl butyral). Partially hydrolyzed grades are used mainly in protective colloids in emulsions, in remoisten able adhesives, in textile warp sizing for rayon filaments and polyester fibers and in printing plates. Indian Imports: Akzo Nobel Coatings India Pvt Ltd Jay chem. marketing Mumbai â€“ 400 067 INDIA. Demand supply scenario Application sector for PVA are multiple such as textiles, adhesives, paper, building products, chemical derivatives such as polyvinyl butyral and others. Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA) main industrial application is polyvinyl alcohol film (water-soluble and for polarizer application). Water soluble PVA films are gaining popularity as green packaging and the demand for the product is growing supported by government initiatives. Water soluble PVA films are actively used in detergents and agrochemical packaging â€“ the fastest growing area. But positive prospects for the product are a bit limited by volatile vinyl acetate monomer (VAM) prices. Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) 2013 World Market Outlook and Forecast up to 2017 grants access to the unique data on the examined market. Having used a large variety of primary and secondary sources, our research team combined, canvassed and presented all available information on product in an all-encompassing research report clearly and coherently. Global scenario Global capacity: One million metric tonnes Important producers include the following: Sekisui Specialty Chemical The US subsidiary of Japan's Sekisui Specialty Chemicals is planning to invest more than $2.6-mn in upgrading its polyvinyl alcohol plant in Calvert City, Kentucky; The project involves replacing a section of the plant's distillation tower with a super high alloy metal. Kuraray Kuraray currently has PVOH production in Japan, Singapore, and Germany Kuraray currently has total polyvinyl alcohol resin capacity of 234,000 metric tonnes per year, which includes 124,000 metric tonnes per year at Okayama/Niigata in Japan; 40,000 metric tonnes per year at Singapore; and 70,000 metric tonnes per year at Frankfurt. Global production of PVA is Around 4 lakh tonnes per annum. Global demand Global demand for polyvinyl alcohol is 0.94 million metric tonnes per annum. China, Japan and the United States continue to be the world's largest producers and consumers of PVOH. The high production levels in Japan and in the United States are supported by large exports. China produces and consumes more than half of world consumption. The polyvinyl alcohol market is at continued high risk for consolidation of producers as new plant capacity has been added in China. China's PVA supply and demand A number of new projects are under implementation in China, On March 23, 2012 Xinjiang Qingsong Vinylon Chemical Co., Ltd. (Qingsong Vinylon) held a groundbreaking ceremony for its 300 000 t/a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) project in Alar II industrial Park, which located in north Alar City of Xinjiang region. It is reported that this project will adopt the calcium carbide acetylene process technology developed by Chongqing Hanma Chemical Technology Co., Ltd. Inner Mongolia Shuangxin Environmental Friendly Material Co Ltd Inner Mongoliar Shuangxin Environment-Friendly Material Co. Ltd. located in Mengxi Hi-Tech Industry Zone with register capital of RMB720 million. It is a new manufacturer of polyvinyl (PVA) with yearly capacity is 440,000 tonnes. Main Products: PVA The first phase 110 000 metric tonnes of polyvinyl alcohol plant was commissioned in June 2011. The second phase of 330 000 metric tonnes of polyvinyl alcohol plant is scheduled to start in 2013. Qingsong Vinylon Chemical Co Ltd On March 23, 2012, Qingsong Vinylon Chemical Co Ltd started the construction of 30 000 metric tonnes per annum of polyvinyl alcohol plant at Alar II Industrial Park, which is situated in North Alar City of Xinjiang region Process Outline Unlike many vinyl polymers, PVA is not prepared by polymerization of the corresponding monomer. The monomer, vinyl alcohol, almost exclusively exists as the tautomeric form, acetaldehyde. PVA instead is prepared by partial or complete hydrolysis (sometimes referred to in this case as saponification) of polyvinyl acetate to remove acetate groups. Impurities resulting from the manufacturing process include sodium acetate, methanol and methyl acetate. Levels of sodium acetate, a reaction by-product, are monitored using the residue on ignition test. The residual methanol and methyl acetate are monitored during the manufacturing process. Indian manufacturers There are two manufacturers in India producing polyvinyl alcohol: * Vam Organics Chemicals Ltd, New Delhi: 2000 tonnes per annum * Polychem Ltd., Mumbai: 2000 metric tonnes (Not in operation) Demand and supply Demand level: 7200 tonnes per annum Estimated growth rate in demand: 12% per annum Prognosis Considering the growing demand for PVA and its appropriate application, strong case exists to Set up polyvinyl alcohol project of globally competitive capacity in India.