Lithium Battery & E-Waste (Electronic Waste) Recycling Industry. Battery Recycling as a Business. Electronic Waste Management, Disposal and Recycling
Electronic waste, or e-waste, is a term for electronic products that have become unwanted, non-working or obsolete, and have essentially reached the end of their useful life. Because technology advances at such a high rate, many electronic devices become “trash” after a few short years of use. In fact, whole categories of old electronic items contribute to e-waste such as VCRs being replaced by DVD players, and DVD players being replaced by Blu-ray players. E-waste is created from anything electronic: computers, TVs, monitors, cell phones, PDAs, VCRs, CD players, fax machines, printers, etc.
Electronics (E-waste) Recycling
Electronics waste, commonly known as e-scrap and e-waste, is the trash we generate from surplus, broken and obsolete electronic devices. E-waste or electronics recycling is the process of recovering material from old devices to use in new products.
Some of the benefits of e-waste recycling include:
· Conservation of natural resources:
E-waste has a lot of recoverable and valuable resources like plastics, gold, copper, aluminum, and iron. To preserve our natural resources, all e-waste should be recycled and reused instead of dumped into landfills.
· Preventing soil contamination by toxic chemicals:
E-waste can be loaded with hazardous materials like lead, chromium, mercury, chemical flame retardants, and beryllium, which can be harmful to our water and soil. Computers and servers can contain cadmium, mercury, and chromium. Flat-panel TVs and LCD screens can contain lead.
· Buy-back offers for customers:
Many computer and phone manufacturers provide buy-back offers for consumers who return their e-waste. By recycling this e-waste manufacturers are able to obtain a continuous supply of raw materials without the need for mining or further exploitation of natural resources. Consumers also enjoy the benefit of reduced pricing by committing to recycle cell phones, computers, and other common e-waste products.
· Creating new jobs:
Recycling e-waste can create jobs for people involved in professional refurbishing and recycling. It can create new markets for materials and components. Other financial benefits due to e-waste recycling include minimization of transportation costs involved in movement of raw materials from one place to another and associated labor costs.
· Energy efficiency:
One of the biggest advantages of recycling e-waste is considerable reduction of energy requirements. The energy cost involved in e-waste recycling is comparatively less than the cost involved in mining and processing of new materials from soil. For example, recycling of aluminum will take ninety-five percent less energy than production of fresh aluminum from raw materials. Recycling of plastics can save up to 70% energy, recycling of glass up to 40% energy, while recycling of steel can save up to 60% energy.
E-waste recycling also helps reduce air pollution, greenhouse gas emissions, and dependence on oil.
Lithium batteries are disposable (primary) batteries that have lithium metal or lithium compounds as an anode. Depending on the design and chemical compounds used, lithium cells can produce voltages from 1.5 V to about 3.7 V, over twice the voltage of an ordinary zinc-carbon battery or alkaline cell battery. Lithium batteries are commonly used as power sources for portable electronics and implanted medical devices.
Lithium batteries are used in many devices present in the workplace. They include pretty much all computers, cell phones, cordless tools, watches, cameras, flashlights, some medical devices, and vehicles ranging from golf carts, electric cars, airplanes and many others. Cell Phone Lithium Battery Batteries of all types are useful because they allow us to store energy for use whenever it is needed.
Lithium Ion (Li-Ion) battery is a rechargeable battery with twice the energy capacity of a Nickel-Cadmium battery and greater stability and safety. LiIon batteries use a liquid lithium-based material for one of their electrodes. Lithium-ion batteries are used in applications that require lightweight and high-energy density solutions. These batteries provide the highest energy density per weight and are mostly used in cellular phones, notebook computers, and hybrid automobiles.
Lithium Ion Battery Advantages
There are many advantages to using a li-ion cell of battery. These li-ion battery advantages include:
· High Energy Density: The much greater energy density is one of the chief advantages of a lithium ion battery or cell. With electronic equipment such as mobile phones needing to operate longer between charges while still consuming more power, there is always a need to batteries with a much higher energy density. In addition to this, there are many power applications from power tools to electric vehicles. The much higher power density offered by lithium ion batteries is a distinct advantage.
· Self-Discharge: One issue with batteries and ells is that they lose their charge over time. This self-discharge can be a major issue. One advantage of lithium ion cells is that their rate of self-discharge is much lower than that of other rechargeable cells such as Ni-Cad and NiMH forms.
· No Requirement for Priming: Some rechargeable cells need to be primed when they receive their first charge. There is no requirement for this with lithium ion cells and batteries.
· Low Maintenance: One major lithium ion battery advantage is that they do not require and maintenance to ensure their performance. Ni-Cad cells required a periodic discharge to ensure that they did not exhibit the memory effect. As this does not affect lithium ion cells, this process or other similar maintenance procedures are not required.
· Variety of Types Available: There are several types of lithium ion cell available. This advantage of lithium ion batteries can mean that the right technology can be used for the particular application needed. Some forms of lithium ion battery provide a high current density and are ideal for consumer mobile electronic equipment. Others are able to provide much higher current levels and are ideal for power tools and electric vehicles.
In India as well as other developing countries, majority of the electronic products are not recycled, which poses a serious environment and health risk. In India, E-Waste management and recycling market faces major challenges due to lack of proper regulatory interface and supporting infrastructure. E-Waste in the country is primarily generated from large household appliances and Information Technology and Telecommunications sectors. In the coming years, as the technology advances, lifespan of products would become shorter, resulting in replacement of existing products with the new ones, which would result in further increasing generation of E-Waste.
Presently, the market size of e-waste in India is of 3.2 million MT and expected to touch to 20 million MT by 2020. In terms of value, it is presently of Rs 25,000 crore industry which is expected to touch Rs 125,000 crores by 2020. Fortunately, the entire industry is presently untapped by the formal sector as required under the E-waste management rules of India.
India’s E-Waste market has been divided into various segments including IT and Telecom, Large Household Appliances and Consumer Electronics. Some of the key products generating most of the E-Waste in the country includePCs, mobile phones, refrigerators, washing machines, laptops, televisions, etc. Attero, Ecoreco, SIMS Recycling, Earth Sense Recycle, and TSS-AMM are the major E-Waste recycling and management players operating in the country. These players are focusing on increasing consumer awareness, while also working towards bridging the gap between the organized and unorganized E-Waste management market in India.
Recycling of electronic waste includes two methods as the traditional manual disassembly method and automated process. The automated process is majorly preferred, it consists of 6 steps which are- picking shed, disassembly, first size reduction process, second size reduction process, over band magnet, non-metallic and metallic components separation and water separation.
Global E-Waste Management Market is expected to garner $49.4 billion by 2020, registering a CAGR of 23.5% during the forecast period 2014 - 2020. It is one of the fastest growing waste streams in emerging as well as developed regions. The reduced life spans of electrical, electronic and consumer electronic devices are generating large E-Waste, which is growing rapidly every year. The growth of E-Waste market is supplemented by the growing need for upgrading to the latest technologies. A desire towards the adoption of new technologically advanced devices leads to generation of millions of tons of E-Waste across various regions.
The high consumption of electronic goods has also resulted in Asia being the largest e-waste generators in the world. Some of the largest Asian countries that generated the most number of e-waste in terms of quantity are China, Hong Kong, Japan, and India. The awareness on the impact of e-waste has grown over the years. This has resulted in the imposition of strong legislative laws as well as the development of e-waste treatment standards and recycling technologies. Standards have been put in place to recycle waste responsibly, which will lead to the growth of the e-waste management market in India and APAC.
The India lithium-ion battery market is expected to grow at a robust CAGR of 29.26% during the forecast period, 2018-2023.
Lithium-Ion batteries are primary batteries in which lithium compound acts as an anode. A lithium cell can produce voltage from 1.5 V to about 3 V based on the types of materials used. These batteries have a potential to achieve very high energy and power densities in high-density battery applications such as electronics, automotive and standby power. Lithium-ion batteries are now widely implemented as the power or energy source for everything from portable electronics to electric vehicles and energy & natural resources. Increasing adoption of smartphones, tablets, wearable’s, toys, power tools, personal care devices, payment devices and digital cameras among users have led to an improved demand for lithium-ion batteries in India.
Increase in disposable income has led to rise in demand for electronic devices such as smartphones and tablets fueling the growth of lithium-Ion batteries in the India. Moreover, rise in government initiative to reduce pollution level are the major factors driving the Indian lithium-ion battery market. Growth in automotive sector has led to surge in demand for electric vehicles which has also supplemented the growth of lithium-Ion batteries. However, high cost and risk of fire in electronic devices may hinder the market growth in the coming years. Growth in automobile industry and growing trend of electronic devices among youth consumers would increase the demand for lithium-Ion batteries in the near future.
The India lithium-ion battery market has been segmented on the basis of material type and industry vertical. By material type, the market is further segmented into cathode, electrolytic solution, anode, and other materials includes (binders, separators, and others). By industry vertical, the market is bifurcated into electronics (UPS, smart phones, laptops/tablets, and others), automotive (car, buses, and trucks, scooters and bikes, train and aircraft), industrial (mining equipment, construction equipment, smart grid), and other industry verticals.
India has set itself an ambitious target of having only electric vehicles (EV) by 2030, which is expected to increase the demand for lithium-ion batteries in India, significantly. The high cost, associated with batteries that are used in the electric vehicles, is considered to be critical for India's ambitious target. To counter this, the Government of India is planning to set up lithium-ion battery manufacturing units in India.
The Global Lithium-Ion Battery Market size is expected reach $46.21 billion by 2022, with a CAGR of 10.8% during the forecast period (2016-2022). Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are rechargeable batteries with high energy density and are mainly used in portable equipment. The market for these batteries is expected to witness a significant growth owing to their increasing use in smartphones, tablets/PCs, digital cameras, and power tools. Moreover, the demand for Li-ion batteries in the automobile industry is expected to increase with the increasing demand for electric vehicles. These batteries have gained popularity among the automobile manufacturers as they offer an alternative to nickel metal batteries used in electric vehicles, due to their small size and light weight.
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