In igneous rocks, which comprise 95% of the earth's crust the average percentage concentration of manganous oxide is 0.124. This is small in compared with the alumina (15.34), FeO + Fe2O3(6.88) and titania but very much higher than the incidence of the well known metals copper (0.010), zinc ( 0.004), and lead (0.002). In igneous rocks, which comprise 95% of the earthâ€™s crust the average percentage concentration of manganous oxide is 0.124. Manganese is used in metallurgical industries in the form of ferro-manganese. Ferro-manganese contains about 80% Mn and 20% Fe. Generally ferro-manganese is produced in blast furnace or an electric furnace. Low silica ores are preferred as they reduce the slag volume. Secondly, the phosphorous content in the ore should also be low. A high purity ferro-manganese is produced by fused salt electrolysis method. The ore is roasted to produce MnO, followed by leaching with H2SO4 acid to form manganese sulphate. This solution is then neutralised to precipitate iron & aluminium. Other impurities are separated as sulphides. Finally the solution is used for electrolysis to produce ferro-manganese of metallurgical grade. The modern electric furnace route of ferro-manganese production gives 85 - 90% manganese recovery, MnO dust recycling is possible and a high degree of homogenisation, slag control and furnace scrabbing is practised. Further, smelting of high-grade Mn-ore with high-cabon ferro-manganese gives medium carbon ferro-manganese. A silicothermic reduction of manganese ore in an electric furnace yields low-carbon ferromanganese. Uses and Applications Low Carbon Ferro- Manganese is a Ferro alloy with high content of manganese. It gives strength to steel and is used in making of high tension steel; it is widely used in the manufacturing of tool steels, alloys steel & structural steels. Its property causes it to have a high affinity with sulphur in the steel and on combining produces Manganese Sulphide (MnS) which floats up to the metal surface. It is also used as a de-oxidizer and hence finds its usage in the manufacture of 18-8 Austenitic non magnetic stainless steel. In cast iron, manganese is used mainly to counteract the bad effects of sulfur. In steel, manganese acts as a deoxidizer and combines with sulfur, thereby improving the hot-working properties of the steel. Also improves the strength, toughness. Manganese ferroalloys, consisting of various grades of ferromanganese and silicomanganese, are used to provide a key ingredient for steelmaking. Market Survey According to industry experts, the Indian manganese alloy industry has the potential to meet the global challenges despite various constraints. With the necessary supportive measures from the government, the industry can make fast towards the path of sustainable growth and meet the higher requirement of the Indian steel industry. The estimated reserve of chrome ore in India is approx.178 MT. In the longer term, the direction of manganese prices will depend on a combination of economic growth in the industrialised world, and continued expansion of industrialising and emerging economies in Asia and South America. Over the next five years, the rise in steel production will lead to an increase in manganese consumption, with an annual average growth rate of 6% over the next five years, with China and India providing the main impetus for this growth. Global demand for manganese in batteries has been relatively stable at about 300ktpy. This has mainly been accounted for by zinc and alkaline primary batteries, but demand for manganese in rechargeable batteries has risen in recent years. Overall, total demand for manganese is expected to increase by around 6% per year over the next five years. The current scenario of Indian ferro alloys industry has changed due to rapid industrialisation with global steel demand on a high growth trajectory. The estimated production capacity of ferro alloys in India is more than double of the domestic demand, making the industry partially dependent on domestic market and more on export market. The future of industry will depend on international demand and export market against the wider industry impact of energy, ore shortages, production cost volatility and lower profit margin.