Palm Oil Production and Processing Industry. Profitable Edible Oil Manufacturing Business
Palm oil is an edible vegetable oil high in saturated fats and free of Tran’s fats. Palm oil is made from the fruits of trees called African oil palms. It is a type of vegetable oil, like sunflower or rapeseed oil. Oil palm flourishes in the humid tropics and produces high yield when grown 10 degrees north and south of the equator. The trees originally came from west and South-West Africa. They grow naturally in tropical rainforest areas, but they also are being planted and farmed especially to produce more palm oil.
Palm oil is the most widely-used vegetable oil in the world. Palm fruit oil, generally known as palm oil, is produced from the pulp of the fruit of the oil palm tree (Elaeis Guineensis). This tropical fruit is reddish in colour because of a high beta-carotene content. The fruit is about the size of a large olive. The fruit has a single seed or kernel, which is used to produce palm kernel oil. Each palm fruit contains about 30-35 per cent oil. Palm fruit oil and palm kernel oil differ significantly in their fatty acid composition, but have the same botanical origin.
Palm oil is the second most widely produced edible oil. Each year, Australia imports approximately 130,000 tons of palm oil.
Palm oil and its derivatives are found in around 50 percent of all packaged foods on Australian shelves. It has a longer shelf life than other vegetable oils making it more appealing for food production. Palm oil is found in many food products including biscuits, chips, crackers and batters. It is also found in toothpaste, soap, shampoo and cosmetics.
Palm oil plantations are the main driver for deforestation in Indonesia and Malaysia. These two regions account for 85 percent of global production of palm oil.
Uses of Palm Oil:
· Palm Oil is used in around 50% of products consumers purchase and use on a daily basis. Palm Oil and derivatives otherwise known as fractions of the oil are used in the manufacture of prepackaged food, cosmetics, cleaning products, hair care, soaps and personal care items. Palm Wax is used in the manufacture of candles.
· Palm Oil is also used to manufacture bio fuel. Palm is also used as feed for livestock named as palm kernel cake (PKC) which is a by-product of palm kernel oil. PKC is considered a medium grade protein feed used to fatten cattle and other livestock.
· Palm oil is used for cooking and is also added to many ready-to-eat foods in your grocery store.
· Its taste is considered savory and earthy.
· Some people describe its flavor as being similar to carrot or pumpkin.
· This oil is a staple in West African and tropical cuisines, and it's especially well-suited for curries and other spicy dishes.
· It is often used for sautéing or frying because it has a high smoke point of 450°F (232°C) and remains stable under high heat (2).
· Palm oil is sometimes added to peanut butter and other nut butters as a stabilizer to prevent the oil from separating and settling at the top of the jar.
In addition to nut butters, palm oil can be found in several other foods, including:
· Baked goods like bread, cookies and muffins
· Protein bars and diet bars
· Coffee creamers
Palm oil is a very productive crop. It offers a far greater yield at a lower cost of production than other vegetable oils. Global production of and demand for palm oil is increasing rapidly. Plantations are spreading across Asia, Africa and Latin America. But such expansion comes at the expense of tropical forests—which form critical habitats for many endangered species and a lifeline for some human communities.
In addition to use as a cooking medium in households, institutions and processed food industry, palm oil has non-food industrial applications too. The oil is used in soaps, detergents, surfactants, cosmetics and many others.
Palm oil market size in India was valued at USD 5.16 billion in 2015. Increasing demand for edible oils owing to the burgeoning population and improving economic conditions is anticipated to remain the key growth driving factor over the forecast period.
The industry in India presents massive potential for growth since the government has allowed 100% FDI in plantation and has also pledged huge financial aid to farmers in upcoming years. This development is likely to encourage domestic cultivation landscape and generate greater profit margins and opportunities for companies.
Palm oil is the most consumed edible oil by volume in India, with a share of ~40%, followed distantly by soybean and mustard oils. However, domestic production of palm oil is limited, and over 95% of the requirement is imported, mostly from the world’s top two producers – Indonesia and Malaysia. Consequently, palm oil imports constitute over 60% of the edible oil imports basket today.
In recent years palm oil based biodiesel has entered the European market. While biofuel has been promoted as an effective means of reducing emissions, establishing palm oil plantations increases greenhouse emissions. Demand for SPO for non-food industrial application will surely depend on many factors including whether the end product is sustainably produced.
An extract of the Palm tree fruit, palm oil is one of the major edible oils consumed globally. Its low competitive price is one of the key factors influencing the consumption pattern. India, Indonesia and China are the major consumers of palm oil. Increasing demand from the emerging economies is going to be the major contributor to the palm oil industry in the future.
In terms of application, although Food sector comprises of 80% of the market share, non-food areas are becoming increasingly important. The trend away from petroleum-based products has meant growing demands for palm oil in usage in Soaps, Detergents, Surfactants, Cosmetics, Pharmaceuticals, Nutraceuticals and other similar products. Biofuels are also driving the growing demand for palm oil.
The global palm oil market size was estimated at USD 57.56 billion in 2014. Several government initiatives concerning blending of conventional fuel with that of bio-based, as well as rapidly growing usage of products as bio-based diesel have been gaining global acceptance over recent years. Consumers globally are aware of bio-based cosmetics, lubricants, and surfactants, which has also prompted the market.
The global market for Palm Oil is projected to exceed 85 million metric tons by 2024, driven by ubiquitous applications in a broad range of everyday products and the resulting growing demand for certified sustainable palm oil. Palm oil is cost-effective and low in trans-fats, due to which its demand is high in the global market. However, the expansion of palm tree plantations is usually carried out at the expense of tropical forests, particularly in countries such as Malaysia. Rising environmental concerns thus pose a tough challenge in front of enterprises operating in the global palm oil market.
The global palm oil market is expected to grow with rising global population, increasing biofuels production, increasing fresh fruits bunches yields, accelerating economic growth and growing application in various markets. Key trends of this market includes rising demand for red palm oil, increasing sustainable palm oil production and growing shift towards palm crop transplanting. However, there are some factors which can hinder growth of the market including consumption of soybean oil in developing countries, stringent regulations, weather uncertainties and retail consolidations.
Palm oil is applicable as a cooking oil, bio-diesel, lubricants, cosmetics, and others, which is driving the growth of the market. Increasing demand for vegetable oil is a major factor driving the growth of the market. Moreover, in the biofuels market, it is used as the feedstock for the production of biodiesel and as an alternative to mineral oils for use in power stations which is boosting the growth of the palm oil market.
The global palm oil market is segmented into North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, and rest of the world (RoW). Asia Pacific is dominating the market and is witnessed to have a substantial growth over the forecast period with increasing consumption of palm oil in different industries. Indonesia and Malaysia are the major producers and exporters of palm fruit which are majorly contributing to the growth of palm oil market in Asia Pacific.
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