Processing of Milk and Milk Products. Production of Paneer, Butter and Ghee. Investment Opportunities in Dairy Sector
Milk is a valuable nutritious food that has a short shelf-life and requires careful handling. Milk is highly perishable because it is an excellent medium for the growth of microorganisms – particularly bacterial pathogens – that can cause spoilage and diseases in consumers. Milk processing allows the preservation of milk for days, weeks or months and helps to reduce food-borne illness.
The usable life of milk can be extended for several days through techniques such as cooling (which is the factor most likely to influence the quality of raw milk) or fermentation. Pasteurization is a heat treatment process that extends the usable life of milk and reduces the numbers of possible pathogenic microorganisms to levels at which they do not represent a significant health hazard. Milk can be processed further to convert it into high-value, concentrated and easily transportable dairy products with long shelf-lives, such as butter, cheese and ghee.
The milk processing section in processing plants contains all operations of milk like collecting milk from farmers, storing milk in tanks then separating, pasteurizing and homogenizing for making good quality milk products.
The processing market in India is expected to grow at a CAGR of 20.5% over FY 2015 to FY 2020. The milk processing industry has traditionally been integral to India’s rural economy, and there are various factors contributing towards its growth. Recently, a number of established FMCG players ventured into the dairy segments through new product launches. Milk Processing Industry in India 2017, several established milk processing companies are looking to further expand their business and are looking to raise funds through IPOs. This will further aid in the development of the country's milk processing industry. Increasing urbanization in the country is bringing more consumers in touch with various processed milk products. This, along with the rising income of Indians, has ensured that the market continues to experience strong growth.
Increasing urbanization, rising incomes, and the proliferation of food and grocery retail outlets across tier 2 and tier 3 cities has led to an increasing accessibility and demand for processed milk products in India. However, the Indian milk processing industry is yet to achieve its full potential due to challenges such as gaps in the supply chain, insufficient cold storage and distribution facilities, and lack of quality feed.
Despite the challenges, growth in the Indian milk processing industry looks promising. The industry is seeing a number of established FMCG players foray into the dairy segment with new product launches.
India is the largest producer of milk and dairy products in the world. The country has experienced tremendous improvement in per capita availability of milk over the last five years. Organized dairy products market in the country is witnessing growth, on account of rising demand for functional dairy products, due to their low fat and cholesterol content. India is witnessing entry of large number of international players, offering a variety of non-conventional dairy products such as yogurts and probiotic drinks. However, unorganized sector, which comprises small farmers, accounts for a majority share in the country’s dairy products market. Domestic players are also increasing their focus on offering products for health conscious consumers and introducing packaging innovations to strengthen their market position.
Ghee, which is widely used in Indian cooking, is the pure butter fat left over after the milk solids and water are removed from butter. It is very fragrant with a rich nutty taste and represents the second largest consumed dairy product in India, after liquid milk. The healthy growth of the market can be attributed to numerous forces. Population growth, rising disposable incomes, easy availability, and growing awareness about the benefits of ghee are some of the factors that are broadening the growth aspects of the market.
Ghee is nutritionally rich class of clarified butter used as a cooking medium. It is known for its taste & pure health in the Indian subcontinent. It is commonly used in South Asian and Middle Eastern cuisines, traditional medicines, and religious rituals. It is prepared by gently heating butter, and retaining the clear liquid fat while discarding the solid residue that settled to the bottom.
The taste, texture, and color of the ghee depend on the quality of butter, source of milk, and duration of boiling. In Ayurveda, ghee is considered as a vital medicine for healing wounds, improving digestion, reducing free radicals, and boosting immune system. It can be kept at room temperature for several weeks without refrigeration.
The consumption of ghee has increased, as it is rich in fat soluble vitamins A, D, & E, helps in building strong bones, improves digestion, and reduces inflammation. The plethora of health benefits and high penetration in the emerging market are the key drivers of the market growth. Further, high disposable income and population boom are expected to present lucrative opportunities to market players. However, overconsumption of ghee could lead to cardiovascular diseases, which in turn is key factor affecting the market growth during the forecast period.
Butter is a dairy product made by churning cream or milk. It can be used like a spread and as a regular ingredient in cooking. From a nutritional perspective, butter is a very good source of protein. It contains saturated fat made from the fresh cream and milk.
The global butter market is expected to grow at a CAGR of 3.8% during the forecast period, 2018-2023. Butter is one of the vital ingredients of confectionary products. However, with the dropping prices of butter, the competition between substitute products has intensified. The demand for spreadable butter has been growing gradually in developing countries, as it is used in various food products.
Paneer contains a host of nutrients like calcium, protein, phosphorus, zinc, vitamin A and vitamin B12. Calcium is one of the nutrients most likely to be lacking in the American diet. To reduce calories, you can grate or sprinkle harder Paneer over your dishes or use small amounts of aromatic and sharp Paneer for their delicious Paneer flavor. The major health benefits of Paneer include relief from hypertension and osteoporosis. It also helps in maintaining bone health, gaining weight and dental care. Paneer is also rich in vitamin-B, which is very good for children, women (particularly when pregnant or lactating) and elderly people, for the formation and strengthening of bones and cartilage. Paneer contains conjugated linoleic acid and sphingo lipids which help prevent cancer.
The organised Paneer market, including its variants like processed Paneer, Paneer spreads, mozzarella, flavoured and spiced Paneer is valued at around Rs. 6 bn. The value of processed Paneer market at 55% of the overall market is estimated Rs. 3.5 bn. The next most popular variant is Paneer spread claiming a share of around 30% of the total processed Paneer market. Paneer is becoming a popular item in the menu of all relatively affluent families.
The global dairy product market is expected to witness significant growth over the forecast period. Growing world population base, rise in per capita income, and increase in consumer awareness level regarding nutritional values of dairy products and, change in consumer dietary patterns are the key drivers regulating the market growth. In addition, technological advancements and innovations for obtaining more milk from dairy animals are also estimated to boost market growth.
Demand for milk and milk products is increasing daily with increase in world population. High-end technology is required to meet these needs by increasing the milk processing capacity and maintaining the quality of the product. The dairy industry is highly localized owing to perishable nature of milk products. Dairy products are exported to the regions where climatic conditions, unmet demand supply ratio, unfavorable government measures and change in exchange rates play a major limiting role. Use of technologically advanced transportation measures for maintaining the efficiency and quality of milk products during long distance export are also anticipated to boost the market growth.
The dairy food market in the India has witnessed a growth in recent years on account of rising demand for dairy food products fueled by expansion in milk production. The surge in growth is majorly originated from growth in Ice cream and Milk Powder as a segment of dairy food market. The growth in this segment has been largely led by the domestic factors such as innovative technology and rise in availability of variants.
Global demand for milk and dairy products is becoming increasingly insatiable. In recent years, the wedge between demand and supply has continued to grow. Increasing real incomes coupled with rising willingness to spend, changing consumer dietary patterns, increasing consumer awareness regarding the nutritional values of dairy products and waning price responsiveness are the major factors influencing the market growth.
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