Production of PROM (Phosphate Rich Organic Manure): An Emerging Biofertilizer, Manufacturing of PROM Fertilizer - Toward a Sustainable Agriculture
Phosphate rich organic manure is a type of fertilizer used as an alternative to di ammonium phosphate and single super phosphate Phosphorus is required by all plants but is limited in soil, creating a problem in agriculture. In many areas phosphorus must be added to soil for the extensive plant growth that is desired for crop production. The solubility depends upon PH of the soil, ambient condition and bacteria present in the soil.
Phosphate Rich Organic Manure is produced by co-composting high-grade (32% P2O5 +/- 2%) rock phosphate in very fine size (say 80% finer than 54 microns).
Phosphate Rich Organic Manure (PROM) is a value added product produced by co-compositing high-grade rock phosphate in fine size with organic matter collected from various sources such as FYM, straw of paddy or wheat, pressmud, karanj cake or waste from fruit industries and distillery etc. Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria (PSB) and nitrogen fixing bacteria are added to improve the efficiency.
Production of phosphorus rich organic manure (PROM) by composting of press mud and distillery waste with rock phosphate into a value added product standardized to contain 18% P2O5 with 22% moisture is a highly promising, natural, better and cheaper substitute of di-ammonium phosphate (DAP). The agronomic evaluation of PROM on paddy crop resulted in an enhancement of 29.41% yield over the DAP.
As the famers are not much familiar with PROM, still use traditional fertilisers for their crops. This is very serious problem for all, these fertiliser harm the soil as well as environment, livestock, humans etc. Excessive use of chemical fertiliser such as Single Super Phosphate (SSP), Diammonium phosphate (DAP), Monoammonium phosphate (MAP) etc. in agriculture mitigates the number of free living beneficial microorganisms; those are directly or indirectly useful for any crop. Because the amount of these fertiliser ustilised by plant upto 30% only. The remaining amount of these fertilisers accumulated in the soil and constantly increases the soil pH.
PROM is manufactured and marketed in India by different agro Industries. PROM is produced by co-composting of high grade (32% P2O5) rock phosphate in very fine size with organic manure such as Compost, Vermi-compost, Cow dung, Soy meal, domestic kitchen waste etc. The efficiency of PROM is totally depended on the particle size of rock phosphate. More the fine of rock phosphate, more the efficiency of PROM. Rock phosphate is soluble phosphate and it is effective in both acidic and alkaline soil.
The specific advantages of PROM are:
1) The process of production of PROM is highly cost- effective as it is a low energy process that does not demand high temperature or high pressure (operates at ordinary temperature and pressure), needs no chemical catalyst and does not consume any valuable chemicals;
2) The raw rock phosphate ore, since is biochemically converted to soluble phosphates, can be fed directly to plants;
3) PROM is (if not, more) effective in agriculture as compared to synthetic fertilisers such as single superphosphate (SSP), di ammonium phosphate (DAP) or monoammonium phosphate (MAP) as evident from successful field studies performed
Benefits of PROM
1) Contains 3 nutrients –1. Phosphorous 2. Organic carbon 3. Nitrogen
2) Acts as alternative to DAP and makes soil soft and enriched with nutrients for Long time
3) Supplies phosphorus to the second crop planted in a treated area as efficiently as the first
4) Can be produced using acidic waste solids recovered from the discharge of biogas plants, thus makes environment sound
5) Due to organic manure presence, leaching and runoff is prevented
6) Production of PROM is highly cost- effective as it is a low energy process that does not demand high temperature or high pressure (operates at ordinary temperature and pressure), needs no chemical catalyst and does not consume any valuable chemicals
7) Provides micro-nutrients like cobalt, copper, zinc along with primary nutrients.
8) PROM is very effective as phosphatic fertilizer even in saline soils where DAP completely failed.
9) Enhances the growth of soil microorganism that assist the dissolution of P either applied to the soil or naturally present in the soil.
The use of PROM will reduce the cost of fertilization to the farmers and will also result into the conservation of phosphate mineral, a non-renewable resource due to the high residual effect. The agronomic efficacy of this new P-fertilizer is higher than that of the complex phosphatic fertilizers available in the market today. ‘PROM’ is suitable to neutral and alkaline soils, which will prove to be a boon to the Indian farmers. In the long run, this product will be a winner as it has significant price advantage compared to the other chemicals.
Global Organic Fertilizers market registered volume consumption of nearly 18.23 million tons, amounting to approximately USD5.87 billion in 2017. The global organic fertilizers market is projected to witness healthy growth at a CAGR of 7%, reaching more than USD8.25 billion through 2023. The changing perception of farmers and end users towards environment friendly farming methods is driving the demand for organic fertilizers worldwide. The various advantages offered at cheaper prices are escalating the consumption of organic fertilizers over chemical fertilizers globally. In addition to this, constructive government policies pertaining to subsidized prices, wastage reduction, limitations on usage of non-biodegradable raw materials are further influencing the global organic fertilizers market.
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