Profitable Grape Wine Production Business. Fruit Wine Industry in India. How to Start Your Own Winery Business
Grape wines are more popular than the fruit wines. But, customers are shifting towards fruit wines as they have a wide variety of products along with having the ability to please people with different tastes. The customers with habits of trying new varieties of wines are motivating the producers to constantly produce new flavors of fruit wines. The health benefits of fruit wines, style and brand appeal, royal fragrance, ability to fit any cuisine, and refreshing taste attract customers to consume various types of fruit wines. And the popularity is increasing rapidly in India.
Grape wine is actually a fermented grape juice. Broadly, there are three different types of wines. These are fortified, sparkling and table. Generally, fortified wines have the higher alcohol content (around 14 to 30%). However, these are less perishable and you can get it stable without pasteurization.
India is a large market for grape wine. In addition, the market is growing very fast. Nowadays, consumers can buy good quality wines from the supermarkets and shopping malls. In addition, online selling allows customers to get the products at their doorsteps. Earlier the choice was limited. Now there are over 200 wine labels available in Mumbai alone. Also, there is a growing demand for Indian wines outside the country.
Availability of good quality Indian wine at half the price has resulted in a continuous increase in demand. Gradual awareness about the basic difference between wines and hard drinks is also helping the wine industry. Thus, India provides a large virgin market for wine.
The grape wine industry in Maharashtra, particularly in Nashik and Sangli districts, has registered tremendous growth in the last few years. Currently, total grape wine production in India is 1.04 crore litres, of which 94.79 lakh litres is produced in Maharashtra. The total investment in wineries in the state stands at Rs 160.31 crore.
Wine consumption is primarily based on consumers’ preference for taste. The wide variety of grapes, different soil and climate conditions, and various winemaking and viticulture practices affect the quality, taste and appearance of wine. Hence, the consumers naturally demand for information regarding the properties of wine such as from which grape variety it was produced, where the vineyard was, or in which vintage it was produced.
Wine is expected to perform well over the forecast period as increasing excise and trade restrictions on other spirits have led to many consumers shifting to wine. Additionally, a growing number of middle-income consumers in the country have been gradually developing a taste for wine.
Rising youth population together with growing affluence amid middle-class, penchant for exotic tourism and other related factors are likely to push the growth of emerging wine industry in India.
Fruit wine is prepared from the juice of a ripe fruit and fermented naturally with yeast. The alcohol formation in the fruit wine is through natural fermentation of the fruits and its content primarily varies in between 5% to 15%. In order to increase alcohol content, yeasts requires sugar for generation of alcohol. The process called capitalization is an alcohol enrichment process by addition of sugar in the fruit wine.
The market is valued at USD 287.39 billion in 2016 and is expected to reach USD 402 billion by 2023, at a 5.8% CAGR during the forecast period 2018 - 2023. The wine market is huge, largely dominated by the European and North American countries. The USA, France, Italy, and Spain are the largest producers and consumers of wine. In the international trade, the European region has more than 50% share of the global wine trade. Currently, there are about one million small and big wine makers globally and the world’s most famous brands (around 84%) are French. The wine consumption is declining in the traditional markets. It is growing rapidly (x4 since 2000) in the Asian markets. Asia-Pacific accounts for 16% of value of global wine imports.
The global wine market is driven by the consumption habits of wine, rapid urbanization, the changing lifestyles and high disposable incomes, and popularity of wine products during social celebrations and aging population preferring wine over hard drinks.
Few Indian major players are as under
- Charosa Wineries Ltd.
- Four Seasons Wines Ltd.
- Grover Zampa Vineyards Ltd.
- Indage Vintners Ltd.
- Millennium Spirits Pvt. Ltd.
- N D Wines Pvt. Ltd.
Grape Wine Manufacturing Process:
Step 1 – Harvesting
As the grapes ripen the concentration of sugars and aroma compounds rises and the concentration of acids falls. The aim at harvest is to pick the grapes at their optimum composition. This depends on the type of wine to be produced. For example, sparkling wine requires a higher acidity than still table wine. The development of the grapes is followed by taking samples of the grapes at regular intervals from a few weeks before the expected optimum levels will be reached. The samples are analyzed for pH (using a pH meter), acid (by titration with sodium hydroxide), sugar (by refractive index or chemical reduction of copper salts) and flavour compounds (by tasting). When optimum levels are reached, the grapes are harvested.
Step 2 - Crushing and Destemming
Sulphur dioxide (5 - 10% solution of metabisulphite) is usually added to the grape bunches as they are fed into the crusher/destemmer. The stems are removed as the bunches pass through a perforated rotating cylinder in which the grapes fall through the perforations while the stems are separated out by beathers. The berries are then passed through rollers and crushed. The SO2 inhibits the growth of wild icroorgansisms and prevents oxidative browning of the juice. Molecular SO2 is the active biocide, but in solution this is in equilibrium with inactive HSO3-. At wine pH only 2 - 8%2 of the SO2 exists in the molecular form, but this is usually sufficient to give the required protection. Wherever possible during the manufacturing process the juice is kept under a blanket of CO2 to exclude air, and if necessary more SO2 is added to maintain the level of molecular SO2 at a minimum of 80ppm.
Step 3 - Pressing
The free-run juice is separated from the crushed berries, which are pressed by gentle squeezing to obtain a high quality juice. The juice is allowed to settle overnight or is centrifuged to clarify it. If necessary pectolytic enzymes are added to remove haze. Finally, the pulp is then squeezed almost dry. This final juice is of low quality and is used for cask wine or fermented for distillation into alcohol for sherry or port production.
Step 4 - Fermentation
Fermentation is begun by inoculating the juice with the chosen wine yeast. This yeast catalysis a series of reactions that result in the conversion of glucose and fructose to ethanol: C6H12O6→ 2C2H5OH + 2CO2 the driving-force behind this reaction is the release of energy stored in the sugars to make it available to other biological processes. In aerobic conditions, the reaction can proceed further and convert the ethanol to H2O and CO2, releasing all of the energy present in the original sugars. This process is undesirable in wine production, so fermentation is usually carried out under a blanket of CO2 to exclude oxygen and hence maximize alcohol production.
Step 5 - Purification
In former times, after fermentation was complete, the wine was heavily treated to alter the pH, composition etc. to give it a desirable flavour, appearance etc. Very few such measures are used today, but those that are retained are outlined briefly below. Proteins and tannins that are suspended in colloidal form in the wine are precipitated out with substances such as gelatin or adsorbed to the surface of substances such as bentonite. This process is called fining. The wine is often also clarified in a process called racking. This is the drawing off of the wine from the lees (sediment formed). Wine is often also cold stabilized (left at 0 to -3oC for 10 - 14 days) to crystallize out any potassium bitartrate.
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