Single Super Phosphate (Granular) & N.P.K. Fertilizer
Single Super Phosphate (SSP) Fertilizer industry is the pioneering fertilizer industry in the country and the first SSP plant is said to have been established by EID Parry in the year 1906. Manufacturing of SSP is based on perhaps the simplest chemical reaction amongst chemical fertilizer industry. The main raw materials required are rock phosphate and sulphuric acid. SSP is a straight phosphatic multi-nutrient fertilizer which contains 16% water soluble P2O5, 12% sulphur, 21% calcium and some other essential micro nutrients in small proportions. SSP, which is a poor farmer's fertilizer (price-wise), is an option to optimise the use of phosphatic fertilizers. It also helps to treat sulphur deficiency in soils (40% Indian soil sulphur deficient) as well for further enhancement of yields at the least cost. In various crops, which require more of sulphur and phosphate like oilseeds, pulses, sugarcane, fruits and vegetables, tea etc, SSP is an essential fertilizer. Advantages of SSP Fertilizer: 1. Provides 15% of total phosphate requirement of the country. 2. Lowest price per kg, preferred by small and marginal farmers. 3. Multi-nutrient fertilizer containing P2O5 as primary nutrient and Sulphur and Calcium as secondary nutrients. 4. It is the cheapest source of Sulphur for the soil. 5. Only phosphatic fertilizer which can utilize Indian rock phosphate deposits. 6. Least foreign exchange per unit of P2O5. 7. Utilizes acid effluent from other chemical industry and thus reduces nation's cost of effluent disposal. The installed capacity as on 30.01.2003 has reached a level of 121.10 lakh MT of nitrogen (inclusive of an installed capacity of 208.42 lakh MT of urea after reassessment of capacity) and 53.60 lakh MT of phosphatic nutrient, making India the 3rd largest fertilizer producer in the world. The rapid build-up of fertilizer production capacity in the country has been achieved as a result of a favourable policy environment facilitating large investments in the public, co-operative and private sectors. Presently, there are 57 large sized fertilizer plants in the country manufacturing a wide range of nitrogenous, phosphatic and complex fertilizers. Out of these, 29 unit produce urea, 20 units produce DAP and complex fertilizers 13 plants manufacture Ammonium Sulphate (AS), Calcium Ammonium Nitrate (CAN) and other low analysis nitrogenous fertilizers. Besides, there are about 64 medium and small-scale units in operation producing SSP. Artificial fertilizers are inorganic fertilizers formulated in appropriate concentrations and combinations supply three main nutrients: nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (N, P and K) for various crops and growing conditions. N (nitrogen) promotes leaf growth and forms proteins and chlorophyll. P (phosphorus) contributes to root, flower and fruit development. K (potassium) contributes to stem and root growth and the synthesis of proteins. The common inorganic fertilizers include ammonia (82% nitrogen), NPK combinations, urea (46% nitrogen), superphosphate, mono and dibasic ammonium phosphates (containing nitrogen and phosphate), calcium ammonium nitrate, potassium chloride (muriate of potash).