Malic acid, also known as L-malic acid, is a dicarboxylic acid that occurs naturally. D-malic acid, which can be made as a racemic combination of DL-malic acid, is another optically active isomer. Because of its high abundance in apples, malic acid is sometimes referred to as "apple acid."
Humans, plants, and animals all create malic acid as part of their metabolic processes. Malic acid provides the carbon skeleton and energy required for amino acid synthesis in the Krebs and glyoxyl atecycles.
Malic acid crystallises as white, translucent crystals from aqueous solutions that are anhydrous, non-hygroscopic (under normal conditions), and non-volatile, with a melting temperature of about 130°C. Its initial dissociation constant produces acidic characteristics that are strong enough in solution to provide a large hydrogen ion concentration while remaining mild enough to make an effective buffer solution.
Because malic acid is anhydrous and non-hygroscopic, it can be stored for long periods of time in normal conditions without caking. Because of this property, final goods containing Malic Acid, whether in powder or granular form, have a long shelf life.
Malic acid has a melting point of around 130°C, which is significantly lower than that of citric acid (153°C). This distinction is very intriguing and significant, particularly in the creation of hard candies.
Malic acid has several uses in the culinary sector (beverages, sweets, chewing gums, jellies, jams, frozen confectionary), animal feed (pet food, pig acidifier combinations), metal treatment, metal plating, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries, and building materials.
Because of its buffering capability and ability to augment the efficacy of antimicrobial preservatives, malic acid is becoming more widely employed as a flavour enhancer in both liquid and powder drinks. Malic Acid is widely employed as a substitute for/or in combination with Citric Acid in beverage formulations due to its acidic taste, and so contributes significantly to increasing and strengthening the taste of the fruits tastes used.
Because of its low melting point, Malic Acid is preferred over other acidulants in candies and sweets. This is especially important in hard candies, because the acid can easily be absorbed into the cooked syrup on the slab. Also, because the needed temperature is so low, caramelization and sugar inversion can be avoided. Malic acid is also utilised in effervescent and soft candies.
Acidulants are used in a variety of desserts, including ices, sherbets, variegated ice creams, jelly dessert powders, milk puddings, and so on.
The use of acidulants in the preservation of fruit and vegetables, whether fresh or canned, is critical. The pH of canned fruits and vegetables must be less than 5 during sterilisation in order to apply a light heat treatment (lower temperature and shorter treatment).
The global malic acid market is predicted to grow at a CAGR of 5.0 percent from 2020 to 2025, with a market size of USD 182.6 million in 2020. Over the projected period, rising demand from the food and beverage industry to enhance flavour through speciality ingredients is expected to fuel industrial growth.
In the coming years, the market is expected to be driven by rising demand for nutritional bars and protein drinks, as well as a growing preference for healthier functional beverages with high nutrient flavours.
Furthermore, the market is expected to benefit from support from other regulatory authorities such as the Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) and the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) over the projected period.
Maleic anhydride and fumaric acid, both petroleum products, are the most common raw materials used to make malic acid. In addition, the utilisation of ecologically sustainable innovations such biomass feedstock is a crucial raw material trend that is expected to support industrial growth throughout the forecast period. Furthermore, the FDA's GRAS designation for malic acid is expected to boost commercialization for food-grade applications.
Beverages, confectionary and food, and personal care and cosmetics are the three end-use categories in the global malic acid market. Non-carbonated and carbonated beverages, as well as flavoured drinks and alcoholic ciders, are included in the beverages category. The segment held the biggest market share and is expected to grow at a CAGR of 4.6 percent in revenue over the forecast period.
The segment also dominated global demand, thanks to rising demand for liquid and powdered beverages, as well as artificial flavorants in carbonated beverages. Due to increase per capita disposable income in Asia Pacific's developing markets, confectionary and food, as well as personal care and cosmetics, are the most popular segments.
Due to shifting eating patterns and dietary preferences, the confectionery and food category is expected to grow at a revenue-based CAGR of 5.6 percent over the forecast period. Because of the high demand for malic acid in end uses such as processed foods and hard candies, the segment accounted for a considerable revenue share in North America in 2018.