Ethanol is a clear, colourless liquid with a distinct and pleasant aroma. In dilute aqueous solutions, it has a mildly sweet flavour, but in higher concentrated solutions, it has a burning flavour. Ethanol, CH3CH2OH, is a chemical compound that has a hydroxyl group, -OH, connected to a carbon atom in its molecules.
Ethanol, usually referred to as ethyl alcohol, drinking alcohol, or grain alcohol, is a colourless, flammable, and mildly toxic chemical compound present in alcoholic beverages. In ordinary speech, it is frequently referred to as "alcohol." Its chemical formulas include EtOH, CH3CH2OH, and C2H5OH, as well as the empirical formula C2H6O. (which it shares with diethyl ether).
Since prehistoric times, carbohydrates have been fermented to make ethanol. This method still produces all of the ethanol for drinking and more than half of the ethanol used in industry. Simple sugars are the raw material. Simple carbohydrates are converted to ethanol and carbon dioxide by the yeast enzyme zymase.
Ethanol can be used as a stand-alone car fuel or mixed with gasoline to make "gasohol." The most popular ethanol-to-gasoline blends have 10% and 85% ethanol, respectively. Each year, approximately 1 billion gallons of ethanol are mixed with gasoline in the United States.
The majority of spark-ignited gasoline engines will run fine with a 10% ethanol mixture. Most spark-ignited gasoline style engines will run well with mixtures of 10% ethanol. Anhydrous ethanol (ethanol with less than 1% water) can be blended with gasoline in varying amounts up to pure ethanol (E100), and most spark-ignited gasoline style engines will run well with mixtures of 10% ethanol (E10). The majority of cars on the road in the United States today can run on ethanol blends of up to 10%, and in some cities where dangerous levels of auto emissions are possible, 10% ethanol fuel is needed.
The most prevalent use of ethanol is in the production of gasoline. When a percentage of bioethanol is added to conventional gasoline, the amount of greenhouse gases released during combustion is reduced. Bioethanol blends with 5 to 10% bioethanol by volume are widely used in Europe. The resulting fuel is designated as E5 or E10. In other parts of the world, such as South America, far greater combinations, up to and including 100 percent bioethanol vehicle operation, are common. Flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) can run on gasoline, methanol, or ethanol alone or in any combination.
Ethanol is also frequently used in the production of paints, inks, varnishes, and alkyd resins, as a heat bearer, in aerosols, and in the offshore industries, to name a few. Ethanol is used in a wide range of foods and beverages, including as a flavour enhancer, in winemaking, and as a base for a variety of drinks and sweets.
Ethanol is one of the most widely used ingredients in pharmaceuticals. It's used as a solvent and chemical reactant in cough syrup, medicinal capsules, and disinfectants. The India ethanol market is predicted to grow from $ 2.50 billion in 2018 to $ 7.38 billion by 2024, with a CAGR of 14.50 percent from 2019 to 2024, owing to growing ethanol usage in sectors such as fuel additives and drinks. Ethanol is a common alcoholic beverage that comes in many different forms, including beer, cider, wine, spirits, and ale. The Indian government is pushing sugar producers in India to generate ethanol for Oil Marketing Companies in an attempt to reduce the country's reliance on imported crude oil (OMCs).
Demand for biofuels is shifting to emerging economies, according to the OECD-FAO Agricultural Outlook 2018-2027, which are fast establishing policies to promote the local biofuels sector. Furthermore, market forecasts show that developing countries will account for 84 percent of global ethanol demand increases. Mandatory blending regulations in several nations mandate that a particular amount of ethanol and biodiesel be used in transportation fuel.
The global industrial ethanol market demand in 2019 was estimated to be around 116.9 billion litres. Demand is predicted to grow at a CAGR of 2.5 percent between 2020 and 2025, reaching a volume of roughly 135.5 billion litres. Chemicals, medicines, plastics, and the beverage industry, which includes cosmetics, paints, cleaning supplies, and alcoholic beverages, account for around 13-15 percent of total ethanol usage.
· Ammana Bio Pharma Ltd.
· Ghaziabad Organics Ltd.
· India Glycols Ltd.
· Jeypore Sugar Co. Ltd.
· Piccadily Sugar & Allied Inds. Ltd.
· Shamanur Sugars Ltd.