Waste Plastic to Oil Conversion. Production of Oil from Waste Plastics and Polythene using Pyrolysis Process. Waste Plastic Pyrolysis
Pyrolysis is the chemical decomposition of organic substances by heating the word is originally coined from the Greek-derived elements pyro "fire" and lysys "decomposition". Pyrolysis is usually the first chemical reaction that occurs in the burning of many solid organic fuels, cloth, like wood, and paper, and also of some kinds of plastic. Anhydrous Pyrolysis process can also be used to produce liquid fuel similar to diesel from plastic waste. Pyrolysis technology is thermal degradation process in the absence of oxygen. Plastic waste is treated in a cylindrical reactor at temperature of 300ºC – 350ºC. Now a day’s plastics waste is very harmful to our nature also for human beings. Plastic is not easily decomposable its affect in fertilization, atmosphere, mainly effect on ozone layer so it is necessary to recycle these waste plastic into useful things. So we recycle this waste plastic into a useful fuel.
Pyrolysis of waste plastic is a prospective way of conversion of waste plastic into low-emissive hydrocarbon fuel. Waste plastic materials viz., polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene and polyethylene terephthalate were collected from local convenience store packing materials. Waste plastic material pyrolysis was conducted as individual plastics and as mixed feed in a new laboratory scale batch reactor. Hydrocarbon molecules from the basic materials are split under the impact of catalyst inside the reactor in 70–240 °C. The reduction of process takes place from 500–600 °C to 240 °C in the presence of catalyst. The analyses of pyrolysis products suggested that it can be used as a viable alternative to motor fuel. It was observed that the yield was better in the case of individual plastic material as opposed to mixed feed in all cases except polypropylene under non-catalysed vacuum process.
Power Generation Using Fast Pyrolysis Liquids
Power production from biomass derived pyrolysis liquids has been under development for the past few years. If technically successful, it would make decentralized bio-energy production possible. Several technologies and system components have been developed by academia, R&D organizations, and industrial companies in many countries. Power plant technologies addressed are diesel engines, gas turbines, and natural gas/steam power plants. Main results are reviewed and R&D needs identified for each technology. The analysis shows that even for the most promising solutions long-term demonstration has not yet been achieved. Pyrolysis liquid use in gas turbine plants and in co-firing mode in large power stations are technically most advanced. Recent work with diesel engines also appears quite promising.
Bio-oil produced from fast pyrolysis has a wide range of applications. The major applications include heat and power generation, liquid fuels, and raw chemical products. The oils produced can be used directly in energy production by combustion, although the heating value of bio-oil is lower than that of fossil fuels (about 40% less than diesel fuel). Basic modifications on boilers to handle the viscosity of the bio-oil are needed to accommodate the material as a burning fuel. Bio-oil produces lower emissions of nitrogen oxide and sulfur gases when burned, especially when compared to fossil fuel emissions
The waste to energy technology is investigated to process the potential materials in waste which are plastic, biomass and rubber tire to be oil. Pyrolysis process becomes an option of waste-to-energy technology to deliver bio-fuel to replace fossil fuel. Waste plastic and waste tire are investigated in this research as they are the available technology. The advantage of the pyrolysis process is its ability to handle un-sort and dirty plastic. The pre-treatment of the material is easy. Tire is needed to be shredded while plastic is needed to be sorted and dried. Pyrolysis is also no toxic or environmental harmful emission unlike incineration.
Economic growth and changing consumption and production patterns are resulting into rapid increase in generation of waste plastics in the world. For more than 50 years the global production of plastic has continued to rise.
The plastics have become one of the most important and indispensable materials in our contemporary world. These plastics are not presently biodegradable and are extremely troublesome components for land filling. The waste plastics are known for creating a very serious environmental challenge because of their huge quantities and the disposal problems caused by them. The pyrolysis has a wide temperature range and it can be performed with or without a catalyst. Generally used catalysts for this process are mordenite, FCC, USY, ZSM-5, etc.
In pyrolysis (plastic to oil) process, the plastic waste is not burned. But instead plastic is chemically broken down into Pyrolysis Oil, Hydrocarbon Gas and Carbon Black. Plastic to oil is environment friendly technology for disposal of plastic waste. apc has 10+ years of expertise in installing and operating state-of-art plastic to oil plants.
Plastic to oil is chemical technology for converting waste plastic into Pyrolysis Oil, Carbon Black and Hydrocarbon Gas. This reaction takes place inside pyrolysis reactor. Following reaction conditions are essential for conversation of plastic to oil.
The global plastic production increased over years due to the vast applications of plastics in many sectors. The continuous demand of plastics caused the plastic wastes accumulation in the landfill consumed a lot of spaces that contributed to the environmental problem. The rising in plastics demand led to the depletion of petroleum as part of non-renewable fossil fuel since plastics were the petroleum-based material. Some alternatives that have been developed to manage plastic wastes were recycling and energy recovery method. However, there were some drawbacks of the recycling method as it required high labor cost for the separation process and caused water contamination that reduced the process sustainability. Due to these drawbacks, the researchers have diverted their attentions to the energy recovery method to compensate the high energy demand. Through extensive research and technology development, the plastic waste conversion to energy was developed. As petroleum was the main source of plastic manufacturing, the recovery of plastic to liquid oil through pyrolysis process had a great potential since the oil produced had high calorific value comparable with the commercial fuel.
Plastic to oil (fuel) conversion technology has gained prominence primarily due to two factors: forming a reliable source of alternative energy from an abundant feedstock having negligible economic value and an eco-friendly disposal of non-recycled plastics. The rapidly rising volumes of plastic waste has led to the overriding concern of environmental hazards to various habitats, particularly humans and aquatic life. Coupled with this, stringent government regulations against the disposal of plastics and revised risk assessment approaches in developing and developed nations have boosted the market.
The Asia Pacific market is expected to showcase promising growth avenues over the forecast period, mainly driven by the modernizing of different plastic-to-fuel technologies. Countries such as Saudi Arabia, Brazil, and the UAE, also contribute to the substantial demand for plastic waste to oil processes.
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