Automotive Industry: Project Opportunities in Tamil Nadu
The automotive industry in India is one of the largest in the world and one of the fastest growing globally. India's passenger car and commercial vehicle manufacturing industry is the seventh largest in the world, with an annual production of more than 3.7 million units in 2010. Automotive industry is the key driver of any growing economy. It plays a pivotal role in country's rapid economic and industrial development. It caters to the requirement of equipment for basic industries like steel, non-ferrous metals, fertilisers, refineries, petrochemicals, shipping, textiles, plastics, glass, rubber, capital equipments, logistics, paper, cement, sugar, etc. It facilitates the improvement in various infrastructure facilities like power, rail and road transport. Due to its deep forward and backward linkages with almost every segment of the economy, the industry has a strong and positive multiplier effect and thus propels progress of a nation. The automotive industry comprises of the automobile and the auto component sectors.
Tamil Nadu is being popularly hailed as “Detroit” of India as it has a large Automobile and Ancillary sector. Automobile industry plays a crucial role in the State economy and has been one of the key driving factors, contributing 8% to State GDP and giving direct employment to 2,20,000 people. More than100 companies in the Automotive and Auto Ancillary industry are located in this state, maintaining highest production norms by implementing internationally recognized quality standards. Chennai has emerged as India's largest automobile and auto components exporter in India. Hyundai has made Chennai the manufacturing and export hub for its small cars. Tamil Nadu has the largest auto components industry base. Currently, Tamil Nadu accounts for above 32% of India's production capacity. Automobile manufacturers operate "Just - in-Time" avoiding inventory costs. The state has a well-developed automotive and auto component industry. It is the hub of Indian automobiles industry. Several automobile and automobile ancillary units are located in Tamil Nadu. It has manufacturing facilities across the automotive spectrum from tractors to battle tanks. Global auto majors like, Hindustan Motors and Mitsubishi have commenced production plants. Ashok Leyland and TAFE have set up expansion plants in Chennai. Fortune 500 companies such as Hyundai and Ford have established manufacturing facilities in the state.
Government brought out a very innovative Policy "Ultra Mega Policy for Integrated Automobile Projects" that offers a very attractive package of support to automobile projects investing more than Rs.4000 Crores. As a result of this Policy, since May 2006, investments attracted by Tamil Nadu is automobiles & components manufacturing is Rs.21900 Crores, almost 5 times of the Investments attracted during previous 15 years (May 1991-April 2006). The total employment potential in these new projects is: 1.20 lakhs (direct + Indirect). Govt of India is currently implementing a project "National Automotive Testing R&D Infrastructure Project" (NATRIP) in Oragdam near Chennai at a project cost of about Rs.450 Crores. This project aims at facilitating introduction of world-class automotive safety, emission and performance standards in India as also ensure seamless integration of our automotive industry with the global industry.
Textile: Project Opportunities in Tamil Nadu
The textile industry is primarily concerned with the production of yarn, and cloth and the subsequent design or manufacture of clothing and their distribution. The raw material may be natural or synthetic using products of the chemical industry. India Textile Industry is one of the leading textile industries in the world. Though was predominantly unorganized industry even a few years back, but the scenario started changing after the economic liberalization of Indian economy in 1991. The opening up of economy gave the much-needed thrust to the Indian textile industry, which has now successfully become one of the largest in the world.
Tamil Nadu has traditional strengths in the textile sector. In the post-quota abolition regime, the Textile Industry has tremendous opportunities for growth as well as challenges to be met. Availability of cotton at fair prices and at right quality, the backlog in modernization, supply of inputs particularly credit and power at reasonable rates etc. are all essential for the textile industry to be competitive in an increasingly uncertain trading environment. The Handlooms, Power looms, Hi-Tech Weaving Parks, Garments & Hosiery, Processing Apparel Park are important components of the textile industry.
The Ministry of Textiles in India has formulated numerous policies and schemes for the development of the textile industry in India. The government of India has been following a policy of promoting and encouraging the handloom sector through a number of programmes. Most of the schematic interventions of the government of India in the ninth and tenth plan period have been through the state agencies and co-operative societies in the handloom industries. Some of the major acts relating to textile industry include: Central Silk Board Act, 1948, The Textiles Committee Act, 1963, The Handlooms Act, 1985, Cotton Control Order, 1986, The Textile Undertakings Act, 1995Government of India is earnestly trying to provide all the relevant facilities for the textile industry to utilize its full potential and achieve the target. The textile industry is presently experiencing an average annual growth rate of 9-10% and is expected to grow at a rate of 16% in value, which will eventually reach the target of US $ 115 billion by 2012. The clothing and apparel sector are expected to grow at a rate of 21 %t in value terms.
Leather: Project Opportunities in Tamil Nadu
Leather Industry occupies a place of prominence in the Indian economy in view of its massive potential for employment, growth and exports. There has been increasing emphasis on its planned development, aimed at optimum utilisation of available raw materials for maximising the returns, particularly from exports. The leather and leather products industry is one of India’s oldest manufacturing industries that catered to the international market right from the middle of the nineteenth century. The leather industry employs about 2.5 million people and has annual turnover of Rs. 25,000 crores. India is the third largest leather producer in the world after China and Italy
Leather industry in Tamil Nadu is considered to be very ancient and some say it is of more than two centuries old. The state accounts for 70 per cent of leather tanning capacity in India and 38 per cent of leather footwear and components. The exports from Tamil Nadu are valued at about US $ 762 million, which accounts for 42 per cent of Indian leather exports. Hundreds of leather and tannery industries are located around Vellore, Dindigul and Erode its nearby towns such as Ranipet, Ambur, Perundurai, Nilakottai and Vaniyambadi. The Vellore district is the top exporter of finished leather goods in the country. That leather accounts for more than 37% of the country's Export of Leather and Leather related products such as finished leathers, shoes, garments, gloves and so on. The tanning industry in India has a total installed capacity of 225 million pieces of hide and skins of which Tamil Nadu alone contributes to an inspiring 70%. Leather industry occupies a pride of place in the industrial map of Tamil Nadu. Tamil Nadu enjoys a leading position with 40% share in India's export.
Government policies in support of the industry:
• The entire leather sector is now de-licensed and de-reserved, paving way for expansion on modern lines with state-of-the art machinery and equipment
• 100% Foreign Direct Investment and Joint Ventures permitted through the automatic route
• 100% repatriation of profit and dividends, if investments made in convertible foreign currency. Only declaration to this effect to the Reserve Bank is required.
• Promotion of industrial parks (one leather park in Andhra Pradesh, one leather goods park in West Bengal, one footwear park in Tamil Nadu and one footwear components park in Chennai).
• Funding support for modernizing manufacturing facilities
• Funding support for establishing design studios
• Duty free import of raw materials (namely raw skins, hides, semi finished leather and finished leather) and of embellishments and components under specific scheme
• Concessional duty on import of specified machinery for use in leather sector
• Duty neutralization / remission scheme
Food Processing: Project Opportunities in Tamil Nadu
India is the world's second largest producer of food next to China, and has the potential of being the biggest with the food and agricultural sector. The Indian food processing industry stands at $135 billion and is estimated to grow with a CAGR of 10 per cent to reach $200 billion by 2015. The food processing industry in India is witnessing rapid growth. In addition to the demand side, there are changes happening on the supply side with the growth in organised retail, increasing FDI in food processing and introduction of new products. India's food processing sector covers fruit and vegetables; meat and poultry; milk and milk products, alcoholic beverages, fisheries, plantation, grain processing and other consumer product groups like confectionery, chocolates and cocoa products, Soya-based products, mineral water, high protein foods etc.
Tamil Nadu has historically been an agricultural state and is a leading producer of agricultural products in India. In 2008, Tamil Nadu was India's fifth biggest producer of Rice. The total cultivated area in the State was 5.60 million hectares in 2009-10. The state is the largest producer of bananas, flowers, tapioca, the second largest producer of mango, natural rubber, coconut, groundnut and the third largest producer of coffee, sapota, Tea and Sugarcane. Tamil Nadu's sugarcane yield per hectare is the highest in India. Among states in India, Tamil Nadu is one of the leaders in livestock, poultry and fisheries production. Tamil Nadu had the second largest number of poultry amongst all the states and accounted for 17.7% of the total poultry population in India. With the third longest coastline in India, Tamil Nadu represented 27.54% of the total value of fish and fishery products exported by India in 2006.
Tamil Nadu government has come out with following policies :
· Raise in processed foods in the market from 1% to 10%.
· Raise value addition levels from 7% to 30 %
· Food processing industry is one of the growing areas identified for exports. Free Trade Zones (FTZ) and Export Processing Zones (EPZ) have been set up with all infrastructures. Also, setting up of 100% Export oriented units (EOU) is encouraged in other areas. They may import free of duty all types of goods, including capital foods.
· Capital goods, including spares up to 20% of the CIF value of the Capital goods may be imported at a concessional rate of Customs duty subject to certain export obligations under the EPCG scheme, Export Promotion Capital Goods. Export linked duty free imports are also allowed.
· Units in EPZ/FTZ and 100% Export oriented units can retain 50% of foreign exchange receipts in foreign currency accounts.
· 50% of the production of EPZ/FTZ and 100% EOU units is saleable in domestic tariff area.
Paper industry: Project Opportunities in Tamil Nadu
Paper Industry in India is riding on a strong demand and on an expanding mood to meet the projected demand of 8 million tons by 2010 & 13 million tons by 2020. The Indian Paper Industry is a booming industry and is expected to grow in the years to come. The usage of paper cannot be ignored and this awareness is bound to bring about changes in the paper industry for the better. It is a well known fact that the use of plastic is being objected to these days. The reason being, there are few plastics which do not possess the property of being degradable, as such, use of plastic is being discouraged. Excessive use of non degradable plastics upsets the ecological equilibrium. The Paper industry is a priority sector for foreign collaboration and foreign equity participation upto 100% receives automatic approval by Reserve Bank of India. Several fiscal incentives have also been provided to the paper industry, particularly to those mills which are based on non-conventional raw material.
Tamil Nadu continues to be one of the forerunners in the production of paper and paper products. There are 74 paper mills in operation in Tamil Nadu. The total paper production was 3.7 lakh tonnes in 2005 06 which accounts for 17.30% share of the national production, next only to Andhra Pradesh. As the country’s forest cover is much below the desired level, the Government of Tamil Nadu established TNPL in 1979 to manufacture newsprint and paper using bagasse (sugarcane waste) as the primary raw material. This is the largest paper mill in India with an installed capacity of 230,000 TPA. Tamil Nadu Newsprint and Papers Limited (TNPL) was established by the Government of Tamil Nadu to produce newsprint and writing paper using bagasse, a sugarcane residue.
Several policy measures have been initiated in recent years to remove the bottlenecks of availability of raw materials and infrastructure development. To bridge the gap of short supply of raw materials, duty on pulp and waste paper and wood logs/chips have been reduced. In the year 1979, Government of Tamil Nadu established Tamil Nadu Newsprint and Papers Limited as a public limited company under the Companies Act, 1956. Commencing production in 1984, with the support of Government of Tamil Nadu, the company has made rapid strides and has emerged as the largest paper mill in India at a single location. With the on-going expansion plan to increase paper production capacity from the present 2.45 lakh tons to 4 lakh tons per annum, TNPL is poised to become a Rs.2000 crores company by 2011-12.
Cement Industry: Project Opportunities in Tamil Nadu
India is the second largest producer of quality cement in the world. The cement industry in India comprises 139 large cement plants and over 365 mini cement plants. Industry's capacity at beginning of the year 2008-09 was 198.30 million tonne (MT) which increased to 219 MT at the close of the year. The initiatives provided by the Government of India to various infrastructure projects, road network and housing activities will provide required stimulus towards the growth of cement industry in India. Domestic demand for cement has been increasing at a fast pace in India & it has surpassed the economic growth of the country.
Tamil Nadu is a leading producer of cement in India. It has 13 major cement factories. It is a home for leading brands in the country such as Chettinad Cements (Karur), Dalmia Cements (Ariyalur), Ramco Cements (Madras Cement Ltd.), India Cements (Sankakari, Ariyalur), Grasim etc. The production of cement in the State increased from 126 lakh tonnes in 2004-05 to 142.89 lakh tonnes in 2005-06 with a growth rate of 13.4% accounting for 10.08 % of cement production at the national level, occupying the 5th place. However, it may be noted that, the cement production in the private sector has been showing an increasing trend whereas production in the public sector has decreased to 7.85 lakh tonnes from 8.06 lakh tonnes in the public sector for the corresponding period.
Government policies have affected the growth of cement plants in India in various stages. The control on cement for a long time and then partial decontrol and then total decontrol has contributed to the gradual opening up of the market for cement producers. The prices that primarily control the price of cement are coal, power tariffs, railway, freight, royalty and cess on limestone. Interestingly, all of these prices are controlled by government. Cement industry consumes about 5.5bn units of electricity annually while one ton of cement approximately requires 120-130 units of electricity. Power tariffs vary according to the location of the plant and on the production process. The state governments supply this input and hence plants in different states shall have different power tariffs. Another major hindrance to the industry is severe power cuts.
Waste management: Project Opportunities in Andhra Pradesh
Waste utilization, recycling and reuse plays a major role in limiting resource consumption and the environmental impact of waste. Recycling is an integral part of any waste management system as it represents a key utilization alternative to reuse and energy recovery (Waste-to-Energy). Which option is ultimately chosen depends on the quality, purity and the market situation. Hazardous waste management is a new concept for most of the Asian countries including India. The lack of technical and financial resources and the regulatory control for the management of hazardous wastes in the past had led to the unscientific disposal of hazardous wastes in India, which posed serious risks to human, animal and plant life.
Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) generation in Chennai, the fourth largest metropolitan city in India, has increased from 600 to 3500 tons per day (tpd) within 20 years. The highest per capita solid waste generation rate in India is in Chennai (0.6 kg/d). Chennai is divided into 10 zones of 155 wards and collection of garbage is carried out using door-to-door collection and street bin systems. The collected wastes are disposed at open dump sites located at a distance of 15 km from the city. Recent investigations on reclamation and hazard potential of the sites indicate the need for the rehabilitation of the sites. Chennai is the first city in India to contract out MSWM services to a foreign private agency- ONYX, a Singapore based company. The scope of privatization includes activities such as sweeping, collection, storing, transporting of MSW and creating public awareness in three municipal zones. ONYX collects about 1100 Metric tons of waste from three zones per day and transports it to open dumps.
National policy on waste management is set out in the October 1998 policy statement on waste management - Changing our Ways. It outlines the Government's policy objectives in relation to waste management, and suggests some key issues and considerations that must be addressed to achieve these objectives. The policy is firmly grounded in an internationally recognised hierarchy of options, namely prevention, minimisation, reuse/recycling, and the environmentally sustainable disposal of waste which cannot be prevented or recovered.