Citrus fruits are native to southeastern Asia and are among the oldest fruit crops to be domesticated by humans. They are widely grown in all suitable subtropical and tropical climates and are consumed worldwide. The most important of the citrus fruits commonly eaten include sweet oranges, mandarins, lemons, limes, grapefruits, and pummelos. These are eaten fresh, juiced, and in processed products. Citrus fruits have well-documented nutritional and health benefits as well as industrial uses.
An orange has a tough shiny orange skin. Inside, the fruit is divided into "segments", which have thin tough skins that hold together many little sections with juice inside. There are usually ten segments in an orange, but sometimes there are more or less. Inside each segment of most types of orange there are seeds called "pips". Orange trees can be grown from pips, but some types of orange trees can only be grown from "cuttings" (a piece cut off a tree and made to grow roots). The segments and the skin are separated by white stringy fibrous material called "pith". In most types of oranges, the skin can be peeled off the pith, and the segments can be pulled apart with the fingers to be eaten. In some oranges it is hard to take the skin off. Orange skin is often called "orange peel".
Orange is a tropical to semitropical, evergreen, small flowering tree, growing to about 5 to 8 m tall, and bears seasonal fruits that measure about 3 inches in diameter and weigh about 100-150 g. Oranges classified into two general categories, sweet and bitter, with the former being the type most commonly consumed type. Traditional sweet varieties include Valencia, Navel, Persian variety, and blood orange.
Grapefruit is another natural hybrid (probably pummelo crossed with sweet orange) arising relatively recently (in the eighteenth century). In the twentieth century, it became widely planted and was used for both fresh fruit and processing. White-and pink-fleshed varieties exist. The pink-fleshed varieties derive their color from the pigment lycopene and require high heat levels for good color development (in contrast to the blood oranges).
Lemon, small tree or spreading bush of the rue family (Rutaceae) and its edible fruit. Lemon juice is a characteristic ingredient in many pastries and desserts, such as tarts and the traditional American lemon meringue pie. The distinctive astringent flavour of the fruit, either fresh or preserved, is also used to enhance many poultry, fish, and vegetable dishes worldwide. Lemonade, made with lemon, sugar, and water, is a popular warm-weather beverage, and the juice itself is commonly added to tea. Citric acid may amount to 5 percent or more by weight of the lemon’s juice, which is also rich in vitamin C and contains smaller amounts of the B vitamins, particularly thiamin, riboflavin, and niacin.
Lemons are thought to have originated in the Himalayan foothills of North-East India, and from where they spread all across the Middle East, Europe, Africa, and as far as Americas. Limes are smaller in size and less sour in taste than lemons. Put together, both of these tiny fruits are perhaps now the largest consumable among fruits all over the world.
The 'Kinnow' is a high yield mandarin hybrid cultivated extensively in the wider Punjab region of Pakistan and India. Kinnow acts as an effective medicine for stomach health problems. It helps in kickstarting the metabolism and keeping one healthy for a long time. For those recuperating from illness, the fruit acts as an energizer. Kinnow possesses medicinal properties as its Kinnow juice and seed have special property called limonene which fights six types of cancer and bad cholesterol
The planting of kinnow should be done on the onset of monsoon from the middle of July up to end of September. The plantation of the wind breaks such as Shisham, Mulberry seeding, Mango, Jamun, Guava and Aonla etc. on the boundaries of orchard in double row helps to minimize the effect of strong winds.
Citrus sinensis, orange or sweet orange (to distinguish it from related species, such as sour orange, C. aurantium, and mandarin orange, C. reticulata), is a small tree in the Rutaceae (citrus family) that originated in southern China, where it has been cultivated for millennia. Oranges are now grown commercially worldwide in tropical, semi-tropical, and some warm temperate regions, and have become the most widely planted fruit tree in the world. Oranges are the world’s most popular fruit, and are eaten fresh and used for juice.
Pineapple, also known as ananas, is a delicious tropical fruit that is surrounded by thorny spikes and topped with hard, waxy leaves that are sometimes up to thirty per fruit. The fruit is up to a foot long and has a combination of sweet and tart taste. The pineapple is a fruit. It is native to South America, Central America and the Caribbean. The word "pineapple" means fragrance of perfumes. The meaning comes from an Amerindian language. The pineapple is also a tropical plant and it must not be kept under 10 degrees. It takes a long time for the pineapple to grow. It mainly depends on the location and the growing conditions it gets. If the temperature is warm, the pineapple will grow faster. On average, it takes about two to three years.
One of the most prized and popular fruits, pineapple or "ananas" has an interesting history to narrate. Originally indigenous to local Paraguayans in South America, it spread from its native land by the local Indians up through the South and Central Americas and to the West Indies. Later, it was brought to Spain when Columbus discovered Americas’ in 1493. In the 15th and 16th centuries, it spread to rest of the world by the European sailors (just like tomatoes) who carried it along with them to protect themselves from scurvy, a disease caused by the deficiency of vitamin-C
Lime, any of several species and hybrids of trees and shrubs in the rue family (Rutaceae), widely grown in tropical and subtropical areas for their edible acidic fruits. The Persian lime is one of the most common commercial varieties, though the smaller key lime, or Mexican lime, is also economically important in many places. The lime fruit is a key ingredient in certain pickles and chutneys, and lime juice is used to flavour drinks, food, and confections. Limeade and other lime-flavoured drinks have a flavour and bouquet quite distinct from those made from lemons. The juice may be concentrated, dried, frozen, or canned. Lime oil, from the peel of the fruit, is processed mainly in the West Indies. Citrate of lime and citric acid are also prepared from the fruit.
Lime consists mainly of water and is an extremely good source of vitamin C. It is also rich in dietary fiber and minerals like calcium, iron, potassium, copper, magnesium, and phosphorous. The best thing about lime is that it has the least amount of calories, carbohydrates, and zero fats. Moreover, lime peel and pulp are also rich in diverse phytochemicals like polyphenols and terpenes.