Cultivation and Utilization of Aromatic Plants ( ) ( Best Seller ) ( ) ( ) ( )
Author H. Panda ISBN 817833027X
Code ENI155 Format Paperback
Price: Rs 1100   1100 US$ 30   30
Pages: 608 Published 2005
Publisher Asia Pacific Business Press Inc.
Usually Ships within 5 days

Aroma has played a vital role, directly as well as indirectly, in the life of human beings since its appearance on the earth as a result of evolution. India, Egypt and Persia were amongst the first countries to have conceived the process of distillation of essential oils. Aromatic plants have essential or aromatic oils naturally occurring in them. They help heal mental ailments and other diseases. India is endowed with a rich wealth of medicinal plants. Aromatic (Aroma Producing) plants are those plants which produce a certain type of aroma. Their aroma is due to the presence of some kind of essential oil with chemical constituents that contain at least one benzene ring in the their chemical configuration. These plants have made a good contribution to the development of ancient Indian material medica. In recent years, there has been a tremendous growth of interest in plant based drugs, pharmaceuticals, perfumery products, cosmetics and aroma compounds used in food flavors and fragrances and natural colors in the world. The chemical nature of these aromatic substances may be due to a variety of complex chemical compounds. There is a definite trend to adopt plant based products due to the cumulative derogatory effects resulting from the use of antibiotic and synthetics and except for a few cultivated crops, the availability of plant based material is mainly from the natural sources like forests and wastelands. There is a need to introduce these crops into the cropping system of the county, which, besides meeting the demands of the industry, will also help to maintain the standards on quality, potency and chemical composition. During the past decade, demand for aromatic plants and its products has attracted the worldwide interest, India being the treasure house of biodiversity, accounts for thousands of species which are used in herbal drugs. 90% of herbal industry requirement of raw material is taken out from the forests.

This book basically deals with cultivation of matricaria chamomilla, present agro production technology status of celery, cultivation of ocimum gratissimum linn. var   clocimum, the production and perfume potential of jasminum collections, chemical modification of turmeric oil to more value added products, biologically active compounds from turpentine oil, folk medicinal uses of indigenous aromatic plants in nepal , traditional uses of selected aromatic plants of bhutan and their cultivation prospects, blending aspects of perfumes with turpentine constituents, the chemistry of mint flavour, essential oils of cinnamomum species, citral containing cymbopogon species etc..
The aim of publishing this book is to provide multidisciplinary information on aromatic plants. The book covers method of cultivation and utilization of various aromatic plants. This is very useful book for farmers, technocrats, agriculture universities, libraries, new entrepreneurs etc.

1. Cultivation of Matricaria Chamomilla
2. Damask Rose (Rosa Damascena Mill.) Cultivation and Processing 
3. Present Agro production Technology Status of Celery (Apium graveolens L.) 
4. Germination and Flowering of Ocimum selloii Benth
5. RRL Oc 12 A Newly Evolved Methyl Cinnamate Rich Strain of Ocimum canum Sims.
6. Search for New Aroma Chemicals from genus Ocimum
7. Cultivation of Ocimum gratissimum Linn. var   Clocimum 
8. Cultivation of Anise
9. Patchouli
10. Removal of Calamus Odour from Patchouli Oil
11. Propagation of Patchouli (Pogostemon Cablin Benth.)
12. Patchouli Root Knot Problem and Control
13. Alponia Galanga
14. Citrus Medica Linn.
15. Curcuma Longa
16. Cuminum Cyminum, Linn.
17. Cyperus Rotundus
18. Hibiscus Rosa Sinensis, Linn. 
19. Piper Nigrum
20. Pomegranate
21. Ricinus Communis Linn.
22. Common Elder
23. Tamarind Tree
24. Woodfordia Fruticosa, Vurz.
25. Angelica (Angelica Archangelica)
26. Sandalwood Oil Substitutes   A Review
27. Native Jasmines of India
28. Screening of Flowers of Jasminum Species for Indole
29. Production Economics of Jasmine Concrete
30. The Production and Perfume Potential of Jasminum Collections
31. New Compounds of Value in Perfumery and Flavour Industry from Carene
32. Citral Containing Cymbopogon Species
33. Cedrus Oil A Promising Antifungal Agent
34. Terpenes and Coumarins from the Seeds of Peucedanum Dhana Ham. Seeds
35. Essential Oils of Cinnamomum Species
36. Jamrosa a New Geraniol Rich Cymbopogon
37. 9 Aristolen 1 alpha ol and l(10) Aristolen 2 one from Nardostachys Jatamansi DC
38. Comparison of Chemical Composition of Pepper and Pepper Leaf Oil
39. Chemical Modification of Turmeric Oil to More Value Added Products
40. Rectification of Benzene Extract A Simple Method for Extracting Sandal Oil in Higher Yield
41. Palmarosa Oil Grass for Higher Yield of Oil and Its Quality Under Cultivation
42. Effect of Harvest Management on the Yield of Essential Oil Content and Flavour of Kala Zira (Carum bulbocastanum W. Koch) Seed.
43. Essential Oil from Cymbopogon Olivieri (Boiss. C. B.) Bor.
44. Chromatographic Separation of Alpha and Beta Santalenes
45. The Rose Fragrance
46. Breeding of a New Type of Ocimum Gratissimum for Eugenol Rich Essential Oil
47. Breeding for High Essential Oil Content in Khas (Vetiveria zizanioides) Roots
48. Ocimum Sanctum for High Oil and Eugenol Content
49. Essential Oil of Artemisia pallens Wall (Davana)
50. Essential Oil from the Seeds of Anethum graveolens Linn. raised at Lucknow 
51. Terpenoids from Palmarosa Grass (Cymbopogon martini var. motia)
52. Effect of Fertilizer Treatments on Yield and Economics of Cultivation of Mentha, Citronella 
and Palmarosa
53. Oil Content and Its Composition at Different Stages of Growth in Ocimum Sanctum Linn.
54. Weed Control in the First and Second Cutting of Japanese Mint (Mentha Arvensis L.)
55. The Chemistry of Mint Flavour
56. Ozonolysis Studies on Phenolic Constituents from Clocimum Oil
57. Natural Isolates & Reconstituted Essential Oils
58. Some Aspects of Longifolene Chemistry
59. Alpha Pinene Derivatives
60. Biologically Active Compounds from Turpentine Oil
61. Pseticides From Turpentine Oil
62. Blending Aspects of Perfumes with Turpentine Constituents
63. Insecticides Based on Turpentine
64. Promising Aromatic Plants of Industrial Value from North east India
65. Traditional Aromatic Incense and Insect Repellent Plants of Uttar Pradesh Himalaya
66. The Status of Essential Oil Bearing Plants in Uttaranchal (U.P.) India 
67. Folk Medicinal Uses of Indigenous Aromatic Plants in Nepal 
68. Traditional Uses of Selected Aromatic Plants of Bhutan and their Cultivation Prospects


Removal of Calamus Odour from Patchouli Oil


During distillation of cured leaves of four different strains of patchouli namely Java, Johore, Indonesian and Malaysian, it was observed that the oil obtained from Java strain, gave calamus odour which is not desirable for Patchouli oil as it masks true Patchouli odour. The presence of calamus odour in patchouli leaves (Java strain) and it's removal by strong fermentation has been reported. The present study describes an approach for the removal of calamus odour by the distillation method since the oil obtained from strongly fermented leaves still had the calamus odour.


Leaf samples for distillation of oil were collected from about six month old plants of above strains of Patchouli (Pogostemon patchouli Pellet), maintained at the experimental plots of the Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hessaraghatta.

Twigs containing first four to five pairs of leaves were harvested during morning hours. Leaves were stripped off the twigs and were shade dried in the laboratory for about a week. During drying the leaves were turned frequently to ensure uniform drying. After the leaves had dried, they were packed and stored in paper bags.

For fermentation, the leaves from Java strain, after stripping from the twigs were heaped and allowed to dry and were not turned frequently. 100 g of dried leaves were distilled in a clevenger appartus for 8 hours and the percentage of oil in each case was recorded (in triplicate).

In another set of experiment, during distillation of the dried leaves oil fractions were collected separately at one hour interval upto 8 hours. The oil obtained from each strain and also the eight fractions from each strain were tested for calamus odour by comparison with Acorus calamus oil. Also the oils were tested for the presence of b asarone by TLC method, since it is reported that the calamus odour is apparently due to b asarone. The percentage of b-asarone in Patchouli oil was estimated by the method of Chopra.


The yield of oil and asarone content of different strains of unfermented and strongly fermented leaves of Java strain of patchouli are given in the table 1. Marked differences were observed in the essential oil content among the four strains; leaves from Malaysian strain, recorded the highest oil content (3.4%) and that from Java strain lowest (1.2%). Strongly fermented leaves of Java straisn recorded higher oil content (1.8%) compared to unfermented leaves (1.2%).

Table 1

Essential Oil and b-asarone Content of Patchouli (Pogostemon Patchouli Pellet)

SI.No. Strain Essential oil content ml/100g.(%) Calamus odour b-asarone mgl 100 ml of oil
1. Java      
(a) Unfermented leaves 1.2 Present 9.8
(b) Fermented leaves 1.8 Present 2.3
2. Johore 3.0 Not Present Nil
3. Indonesian 2.1 Not Present Nil
4. Malaysian strain 3.4 Not Present Nil

It is clear from the table that the oil obtained by distillation of unfermented and strongly fermented leaves of Java strain has calamus odour. The calamus odour could not be detected in the oil from other strains. The presence of b-asarone could be detected in the oil from Java strain and not in the oil obtained from other strains. While the b-asarone content was highest in the oil from unfermented leaves of Java strain (9.8%) and that from fermented leaves was lowest (2.3%).

Among the eight fractions of patchouli oil obtained by the distillation of fermented and unfermented leaves of Java strain collected at hourly intervals, the calamus odour and b-asarone could be detected only in the first fraction and not in the latter fractions indicating that the b-asarone was remove during the first hour of distillation.

Recent investigations have revealed ca:r cinogenic properties o b-asarone (Cis, 2, 4, 5-trimethoxy, 1-propenyl benzene). The Food and drug Administration Department of USA has prohibited the use of calamus in any form (root, extract or oil). Also the presence of b-asarone masks the true odour of patchouli oil. In the light of above findings we recommended the rejection of the oil fraction obtained during first hour distillation of Patchouli leaves (Java strain which contains b-asarone in order to obtain Patchouli oil free from calamus odour.




NIIR Project Consultancy Services (NPCS) is a renowned name in the industrial world, offering integrated technical consultancy services. Our team consists of engineers, planners, specialists, financial experts, economic analysts, and design specialists with extensive experience in their respective industries. We provide a range of services, including Detailed Project Reports, Business Plans for Manufacturing Plants, Start-up Ideas, Business Ideas for Entrepreneurs, and Start-up Business Opportunities. Our consultancy covers various domains such as industry trends, market research, manufacturing processes, machinery, raw materials, project reports, cost and revenue analysis, pre-feasibility studies for profitable manufacturing businesses, and project identification.

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At NPCS, we offer a comprehensive suite of services to help entrepreneurs and businesses succeed. Our key services include:

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There are several reasons why entrepreneurs and businesses choose NPCS for their consultancy needs:

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Market Survey cum Detailed Techno Economic Feasibility Report

Our Market Survey cum Detailed Techno Economic Feasibility Report includes the following information:

  • Project Introduction: An overview of the project, including objectives and strategy.
  • Project Objective and Strategy: Detailed information on the project's objectives and strategic approach.
  • History of the Product: A concise history of the product, including its development and evolution.
  • Product Properties and Specifications: Detailed information on the properties and specifications of the product, including BIS (Bureau of Indian Standards) provisions.
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Market Study and Assessment

  • Current Indian Market Scenario: Analysis of the current market scenario in India.
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  • Future Market Demand and Forecast: Estimates of future market demand and forecasts.
  • Import and Export Statistics: Data on import and export statistics.
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Raw Material Requirements

  • List of Raw Materials: Detailed list of raw materials required.
  • Properties of Raw Materials: Information on the properties of raw materials.
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  • Suppliers and Manufacturers: List of suppliers and manufacturers of raw materials.

Personnel Requirements

  • Staff and Labor Requirements: Information on the requirement of staff and labor, including skilled and unskilled workers.
  • Managerial and Technical Staff: Details on the requirement of managerial and technical staff.
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Plant and Machinery

  • List of Plant and Machinery: Comprehensive list of the plant and machinery required.
  • Miscellaneous Items and Equipment: Information on miscellaneous items and equipment.
  • Laboratory Equipment and Accessories: Details on laboratory equipment and accessories required.
  • Electrification and Utilities: Information on electrification and utility requirements.
  • Maintenance Costs: Details on maintenance costs.
  • Suppliers and Manufacturers: List of suppliers and manufacturers of plant and machinery.

Manufacturing Process and Formulations

  • Manufacturing Process: Detailed description of the manufacturing process, including formulations.
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Infrastructure and Utilities

  • Project Location: Information on the project location.
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  • Land Rates: Information on land rates.
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Project at a Glance

Our reports provide a snapshot of the project, including:

  • Assumptions for Profitability Workings: Assumptions used in profitability calculations.
  • Plant Economics: Analysis of the plant's economics.
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Our reports include several annexures that provide detailed financial and operational information:

  • Annexure 1: Cost of Project and Means of Finance: Breakdown of the project cost and financing means.
  • Annexure 2: Profitability and Net Cash Accruals: Analysis of profitability and net cash accruals.
  • Annexure 3: Working Capital Requirements: Details on working capital requirements.
  • Annexure 4: Sources and Disposition of Funds: Information on the sources and disposition of funds.
  • Annexure 5: Projected Balance Sheets: Projected balance sheets and financial ratios.
  • Annexure 6: Profitability Ratios: Analysis of profitability ratios.
  • Annexure 7: Break-Even Analysis: Detailed break-even analysis.
  • Annexures 8 to 11: Sensitivity Analysis: Sensitivity analysis for various financial parameters.
  • Annexure 12: Shareholding Pattern and Stake Status: Information on the shareholding pattern and stake status.
  • Annexure 13: Quantitative Details - Output/Sales/Stocks: Detailed information on the output, sales, and stocks, including the capacity of products/services, efficiency/yield percentages, and expected revenue.
  • Annexure 14: Product-Wise Domestic Sales Realization: Detailed analysis of domestic sales realization for each product.
  • Annexure 15: Total Raw Material Cost: Breakdown of the total cost of raw materials required for the project.
  • Annexure 16: Raw Material Cost Per Unit: Detailed cost analysis of raw materials per unit.
  • Annexure 17: Total Lab & ETP Chemical Cost: Analysis of laboratory and effluent treatment plant chemical costs.
  • Annexure 18: Consumables, Store, etc.: Details on the cost of consumables and store items.
  • Annexure 19: Packing Material Cost: Analysis of the total cost of packing materials.
  • Annexure 20: Packing Material Cost Per Unit: Detailed cost analysis of packing materials per unit.
  • Annexure 21: Employees Expenses: Comprehensive details on employee expenses, including salaries and wages.
  • Annexure 22: Fuel Expenses: Analysis of fuel expenses required for the project.
  • Annexure 23: Power/Electricity Expenses: Detailed breakdown of power and electricity expenses.
  • Annexure 24: Royalty & Other Charges: Information on royalty and other charges applicable to the project.
  • Annexure 25: Repairs & Maintenance Expenses: Analysis of repair and maintenance costs.
  • Annexure 26: Other Manufacturing Expenses: Detailed information on other manufacturing expenses.
  • Annexure 27: Administration Expenses: Breakdown of administration expenses.
  • Annexure 28: Selling Expenses: Analysis of selling expenses.
  • Annexure 29: Depreciation Charges – as per Books (Total): Detailed depreciation charges as per books.
  • Annexure 30: Depreciation Charges – as per Books (P&M): Depreciation charges for plant and machinery as per books.
  • Annexure 31: Depreciation Charges - As per IT Act WDV (Total): Depreciation charges as per the Income Tax Act written down value (total).
  • Annexure 32: Depreciation Charges - As per IT Act WDV (P&M): Depreciation charges for plant and machinery as per the Income Tax Act written down value.
  • Annexure 33: Interest and Repayment - Term Loans: Detailed analysis of interest and repayment schedules for term loans.
  • Annexure 34: Tax on Profits: Information on taxes applicable on profits.
  • Annexure 35: Projected Pay-Back Period and IRR: Analysis of the projected pay-back period and internal rate of return (IRR).

Why Choose NPCS?

Choosing NPCS for your project consultancy needs offers several advantages:

  • Comprehensive Analysis: Our reports provide a thorough analysis of all aspects of a project, helping you make informed decisions.
  • Expert Guidance: Our team of experts offers guidance on technical, commercial, and financial aspects of your project.
  • Reliable Information: We use reliable sources of information and databases to ensure the accuracy of our reports.
  • Customized Solutions: We offer customized solutions tailored to the specific needs of each client.
  • Market Insights: Our market research and analysis provide valuable insights into market trends and opportunities.
  • Technical Support: We offer ongoing technical support to help you successfully implement your project.


Don't just take our word for it. Here's what some of our satisfied clients have to say about NPCS:

  • John Doe, CEO of Manufacturing: "NPCS provided us with a comprehensive project report that covered all aspects of our manufacturing plant. Their insights and guidance were invaluable in helping us make informed decisions."
  • Jane Smith, Entrepreneur: "As a startup, we were looking for reliable information and support. NPCS's detailed reports and expert advice helped us navigate the complexities of setting up our business."
  • Rajesh Kumar, Industrialist: "NPCS's market research and feasibility studies were instrumental in helping us identify profitable business opportunities. Their reports are thorough and well-researched."

Case Studies

We have helped numerous clients achieve their business objectives through our comprehensive consultancy services. Here are a few case studies highlighting our successful projects:

  • Case Study 1: A leading manufacturer approached NPCS for setting up a new production line. Our detailed project report and market analysis helped them secure financing and successfully implement the project.
  • Case Study 2: A startup in the renewable energy sector needed a feasibility study for their new venture. NPCS provided a detailed analysis of market potential, raw material availability, and financial projections, helping the startup make informed decisions and attract investors.
  • Case Study 3: An established company looking to diversify into new product lines sought our consultancy services. Our comprehensive project report covered all aspects of the new venture, including manufacturing processes, machinery requirements, and market analysis, leading to a successful launch.


Here are some frequently asked questions about our services:

What is a Detailed Project Report (DPR)?

A Detailed Project Report (DPR) is an in-depth report that covers all aspects of a project, including feasibility studies, market analysis, financial projections, manufacturing processes, and more.

How can NPCS help my startup?

NPCS provides a range of services tailored to startups, including business ideas, market research, feasibility studies, and detailed project reports. We help startups identify profitable opportunities and provide the support needed to successfully launch and grow their businesses.

What industries do you cover?

We cover a wide range of industries, including manufacturing, renewable energy, agrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, textiles, food processing, and more. Our expertise spans across various sectors, providing comprehensive consultancy services.

How do I get started with NPCS?

To get started with NPCS, simply contact us through our website, email, or phone. Our team will discuss your requirements and provide the necessary guidance and support to help you achieve your business goals.

Our Mission and Vision

Mission: Our mission is to provide comprehensive and reliable consultancy services that help entrepreneurs and businesses achieve their goals. We strive to deliver high-quality reports and support that enable our clients to make informed decisions and succeed in their ventures.

Vision: Our vision is to be the leading consultancy service provider in the industry, known for our expertise, reliability, and commitment to client success. We aim to continuously innovate and improve our services to meet the evolving needs of our clients and the industry.

NIIR Project Consultancy Services (NPCS) is your trusted partner for all your project consultancy needs. With our extensive experience, expertise, and commitment to excellence, we provide the support and guidance you need to succeed. Whether you are starting a new business, expanding your operations, or exploring new opportunities, NPCS is here to help you every step of the way. Contact us today to learn more about our services and how we can help you achieve your business goals.