(FARMING, BREEDING & MEAT PRODUCTION)
EMU (Dromaius novaehollandiae) and ostrich (Struthio camelus) birds belong to ratite group have high economic value for their meat, eggs, oil, skin and feathers. These birds are adoptable to varied climatic conditions. Although emu and ostrich were introduced in India, emu farming has gained much importance. Emu and ostrich features, management of these birds during chick, growing, fattening, breeding and non-breeding stages were covered. Care and hatching of eggs, nutrient requirements, healthcare and products of emu and ostrich were also covered. Economics of emu rearing with reference to the cost of maintaining breeders cost of production of eggs and chick are covered.
Ratite birds have poorly developed wings and include emu, ostrich, rhea, cassowary and kiwi. Emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae) and ostrich (Struthio camelus) are reared commercially in many parts of the world for their meat, oil, skin and feathers, which are of high economic value. The anatomical and physiological features of these birds appear to be suitable for temperate and tropical climatic conditions. These birds can be well maintained on extensive (ranches) and semi intensive rearing systems with reasonably high fibrous diets. United State, Australia and China are leading in emu and of America ostrich farming. Emu and ostrich were introduced recently into India. Compared to ostrich, emu rearing is picking up. At present there are more than 10000 emus and only small numbers of ostrich are available in India. Of these 80% are in Andhra Pradesh. Emu birds are well adapted to Indian climatic conditions.
Features of Emu
Emu has long neck, relatively small naked head, three toes and body covered with feathers. Birds initially have longitudinal stripes on body (0-3 month's age) then gradually turn to brown by 4-12 months age. Mature birds have bare blue neck and mottled body feathers. Adult bird height is about 6 feet with a weight of 45-60 kg. There are no definite emu breeds but are captive bred. Legs are long covered with scaly skin adoptable to hardy and dry soil. Birds sit on their haunch and also walk frequently along the fence. Natural food of emu is on insects, tender leaves of plant and forages on different grasses, eats different kinds of vegetables and fruits like carrot, cucumber, papaya etc. Air sac hangs down loosely in females and is prominent during breeding season gives booming sound where as males do grunting sound. Often sex of the bird can be identified by these sounds during breeding season. Female is the larger of the two especially during breeding season when the male may fast. The female is the dominant member of the pair. The male emu sits on the nest. Emus live for about 30 years may produce eggs for more than 16 years. Birds can be maintained as flock or pair. The birds require fencing made of link chain of 2 x 4 inches with a height of 6 feet for adults. Sexes can be identified by tattooing on the skin of shank or by placing microchip under the skin.
Adult ostrich is of 2.4-2.8 meters height, fleshy thighs, rounded body; long legs with 2 toes weigh about 70-160kg. Thighs and legs are bare, uncovered by feathers. Males have black feathers with white rim on tail and wings. Females are brown or gray. Commercial varieties are blue neck (largest ostrich), hybrid blue (better egg layer) and red neck (smaller ostrich). Ostrich has long large intestine with long colon and developed caecum for digesting crude fiber. It has no gall bladder. Ostrich is reared for meat purpose. Rearing ostrich requires large facilities, greens or quality hay for better economic returns.
Management of Chicks
Emu chicks weigh about 370 to 450 g (about 67% of egg weight) depending on the size of egg. First 48-72 hours, emu chicks are restricted to incubator for quick absorption of the yolk and proper drying. Like chicken Emu needs brooding during their early life. Clean and disinfect brooding shed thoroughly well in advance of receiving chicks, spread litter (paddy husk) cover new gunny bags or burlap over the litter. Arrange a set of brooder for about 25-40 chicks giving 4 sq. ft. per chick for first 3 weeks. Provide brooding temperature of 90°F at first 10 days and 85°F till 3-4 weeks. Proper temperature makes the brood successful. Provide sufficient water mugs of a liter capacity and equal number of feeder troughs under the brooder. A chick guard must be 2.5 feet height to avoid jumping and straying of chicks. Provide 24 hours of one foot candle light i.e. 40 watt bulb for every 100 sft area. Offer small pieces of carrot to the emu chicks since the birds readily catch and also are attracted. After 3 weeks of age, slowly extend the brooder area by widening the chick guard circle and later remove it by the time chicks attain 6 weeks. Feed starter mash for the first 14 weeks or till attaining standard body weight of 10 kg. Ensure proper floor space for the birds housed as these birds require run space for their healthy life. 30 ft run space is required; hence floor space of 40ft x 30ft is required for about 40 chicks if outdoor space is provided. Floor must be easily drained and free from dampness. Periodical body weights on 10% of birds will give a scope for correction of management defects.
EMU facilities differ from emu in which the chicks can be exposed to ranging outside during day time as early as 8 weeks age to adapt to fiber digestion. At 4 months of age chicks are fairly hardy can be ranged outside with less danger of intestinal obstruction problem. Up to 3 months age bird require floor space about 0.3-1.5 and 5-10 square meters as shelter and run.
Never make over crowd in the pen, first few days provide sanitized water and anti-stress agents
• Clean the waters daily, otherwise automatic waters are preferable
• Monitor the birds daily for their comfort, feed intake, water intake, litter condition etc for making immediate corrections if any.
• Ensure proper mineral and vitamins in the feed for healthy growth of chicks and to avoid leg deformities.
• Spraddle condition of legs that are seen commonly can be managed by holding the legs together during the first 72 hours of chicks. This can be done particularly in the incubator
• Practice all- in -all -out rearing to maintain better biosecurity
Not to be Practice
• Never handle the birds during hot hours. Birds easily excite, hence calm and quite environment in the pen is required
• Birds easily grab any item, so avoid certain objects like nails, pebbles etc in the vicinity of birds
• Avoid unauthorized persons, material into the farm. Proper biosecurity must be ensured
• Never keep the birds on smooth and paddy husk spread surface as the young chicks easily excite, run and break their legs due to slipperiness.
As Emu chicks grow, they require a bigger size of waters and feeders and increased floor space. Identify sexes and rear them separately. If necessary, place sufficient paddy husk in the pen to manage the litter in good and dry condition. Feed the birds on grower mash till birds attain 34 weeks age or 25 kg body weight. Greens about 10% of diet particularly different kinds of leaf meals for making the birds eat adopt to fibrous diets. Provide clean water all the time and offer feed as much as they want. Ensure dry litter condition throughout the grower stage. Add required quantity of paddy husk to the pen. Provide 40ft x 100 ft space for 40 birds if outdoor space is considered. Floor must be easily drained and avoid dampness. Restrain the younger birds by securing the body by side ways and hold the body firmly. Sub adults and adults can be secured by holding the wing by side way and held the bird by grabbing both the wings and place by dragging closely to a person's legs. Never allow bird to kick. Bird can kick sideways and front ways. Hence, better securing and firm holding is necessary to avoid harming the bird as well as person.
• Monitor flock at least once daily for alertness of birds, feeding and watering troughs.
• Notice leg deformities, droppings. Identify and isolate ailing birds
• Practice all- in -all- out system. Never keep in the vicinity of the adult birds.
Not to be Practice
• Never keep the sharp objects, pebbles in the vicinity of the birds. Birds are mischievous and grab anything that comes in their vicinity.
• Never handle or disturb the birds for restraining or vaccination during the hot weather conditions.
• Provide cool and clean water throughout the day.
Growing emu need to be fattened to improve body weight (40kg) and FCR (5:1) at the time of marketing for table purpose. Offer finisher ration from 35 weeks age to slaughter or up to 12-18 months age. Bird yield 53% dressed meat and 3-4 liters of fat. Inclusion of vegetable fat at 3-5% in Emu diet will fetch better FCR and net returns since the birds at this age utilizes fat in an efficient way compared to the chicks of young age of less than 15 weeks. The sub-adults kept for breeding purpose need to be fed on maintenance feed specifically made for this purpose from 35th week age to sexual maturity by 18-24 months.
Offer fresh required feed balance in respect of all the dietary nutrients for Emu birds.
Ensure proper floor space 100 sq.ft. per bird in terms of shelter and run.
Fencing must be at a height of 6 ft made of link mesh 2 x 4 inches to avoid jumping out of the pen
House separately male and female birds to avoid fighting
Not to be Practice
• Do not store feed for more than a month. Such feed is vulnerable to damage the nutrients. Further avoid toxins in feed.
• Do not mix the fresh bird stock with the existing one
• Never change feed abruptly
Emu birds attain sexual maturity by 18-24 months age. Choose flock or pen mating. Keep sex ratio of male to female 1:1. In case of pen mating pairing should be done based on the compatibility. During mating, offer floor space about 2500 sq.ft. (100x25) per pair. Trees and shrubs may be provided for privacy and to induce mating. Offer breeder diet well in advance i.e. 3- 4 weeks prior to breeding programme, and fortify with minerals & vitamins to ensure better fertility and hatchability in birds. Semen collection and artificial insemination was successful in emu so that the cost of male maintenance could be minimized. Its implementation needs skill. Soon after breeding season, separate the sexes and house them in flock and feed on maintenance ration. Normally adult bird consumes 1 kg feed/day but during breeding season feed intake will be drastically reduced hence intake of nutrients must be ensured.
First egg is laid around two and half year age. Eggs will be laid during October to February particularly cooler days of the year. The time of egg laying is around 5.30 PM to 7.00 PM. Eggs can be collected twice daily to avoid damage in the pen. Normally a hen lays about 15 eggs during first year cycle in subsequent years the egg production increases till it can reach about 30-40 eggs. On an average a hen lays 25 eggs per year. Egg weighs about 475-650 g with an average egg weight of 560 g in a year. Egg appears greenish look like tough marble. The intensity of colour varies from light, medium to dark green. The surface varies from rough to smooth. Majority of eggs (42%) are medium green with rough surface.
Feed the breeder ration with sufficient calcium (2.7%) for ensuring proper calcification of egg with strength. Feeding excess calcium to the breeding bird before laying will upset the egg production and also impairs the male fertility. Provide extra calcium in the form of grit or calcite powder by placing in a separate trough.
Collect eggs frequently from the pen. If eggs are soiled, clean with sand paper and mop up with cotton. Store the eggs in a cooler room providing 60°F. Never store eggs for more than 10 days to ensure better hatchability. Eggs stored at room temperature can be set every 3 to 4 days for good hatchability.
Incubation and Hatching
There are few reports available on incubation and hatching of emu and ostrich eggs. Set the fertile eggs after adjusting to room temperature and place in a horizontal or in slant arranged row-wise in a tray. Keep ready egg incubator by cleaning and disinfecting thoroughly well in advance and switch on the machine for setting the correct incubating temperature i.e dry bulb temperature about 96-97°F and wet bulb temperature about 78-80°F (about 30-40% RH). Place carefully the egg tray in a setter once the incubator is ready with set temperature and relative humidity and place identification slip for date of set and pedigree are required. Fumigate the incubator with 20g potassium permanganate + 40 ml formaline for every 100 cft of incubator space. Turn the eggs every one hour till the 48 th day of incubation. From 49th day onwards stop turning the eggs and watch for pipping. By 52 nd day the incubation period ends. The chicks need drying. Hold the chicks for at least 24 to 72 hours in the hatcher compartment for reducing the down and to become healthy chicks. Normally hatchability will be 70% or more. There are many reasons for low hatchability. Proper breeder nutrition ensures the healthy chicks.
Ostrich eggs are to be set broad end up. Incubation period is 39-44 days average 42 days. Incubation temperature is 97-98.4°F (dry bulb) with relative humidity of 20-30% (67-73°F wet bulb) and increase the relative humidity to 30-40% after the hatch for better drying.
Emu need balanced diet for their proper growth and reproduction. So far the nutrient requirements of these birds were not worked out. Feed can be prepared by using common poultry feed ingredients. Feed alone accounts for 60-70% of the production cost, hence least cost rations will improve the margin of returns over feeding. In commercial farms, feed intake per emu breeding pair per annum varied from 394-632 kg with a mean of 527 kg. Cost of feed is Rs.6.50 and 7.50 during non-breeding and breeding season respectively.
Healthcare and Management
Ratite birds are generally sturdy and live long (80% livability). Mortality and health problems in emu and ostrich are mainly in chicks and juveniles. These include starvation, malnutrition, intestinal obstruction, leg abnormalities, coli infections and clostridial infections. The main causes were improper brooding or nutrition, stress, improper handling and genetic disorders. Other diseases reported were rhinitis, candidiasis, salmonella, aspergillosis, coccidiosis, lice and ascarid infestations. Ivermectin can be given to prevent external and internal worms at 1 month interval beginning at 1 month age.
In India so far few outbreaks of Ranikhet disease were recorded based on gross lesions but were not confirmed. However, the birds vaccinated for R.D at the age of 1 (lasota), 4 (lasota booster) weeks; 8, 15 and 40 weeks by Mukteswar strain gave better immunity.
Meat from emu and ostrich are of high quality in terms of low fat, low cholesterol, gamey flavour. Valued cuts are from thigh and larger muscle of drum or lower leg. Emu skin is fine and strong. Leg skin is of distinctive pattern hence highly valued. Emu fat is rendered to produce oil, which has dietary, therapeutic (anti inflammatory) and cosmetic value.
10-14 week age or up to 10 kg body weight, 215-34 wk age or10-25 kg body weight, 335 wk age to slaughter or 25 to 40 kg body weight, 44-5 wk before breeding, 5 non-breeding.
Emu can be successfully raised in small pens or large pastures - or a combination of the two. Most emu ranches are between 5 to 10 acres.
Breeder Pens - 30'x100' is adequate. The pens can be laid out in rows or wagon wheel shaped; it's a matter of personal preference on the part of the farmer. Having breeder pens is necessary. For keeping up with genetics, fertility rates or selling live stock. This size pen is large enough to run either a pair or a trio.
Colony pens - stocked with between 5 to 10 pairs of emu per acre. No way to keep up with genetics, laying or fertility records. However, it is a more natural environment for the birds and some farmers run colony pens during the summer, moving the breeders back into smaller pens when breeding season approaches.
Grow out pens - chicks 2 or 3 months and up of a similar size are kept anywhere from 20 to 50 birds per acre until they are ready to transport to a processing facility.
Chick runs - chicks from the brooder to 2 or 3 months of age are usually kept in smaller pens with shelter. Keep in 5'x10' inside pens during the coldest of winters. The outside runs are 80' long.
Site selection: Good drainage is essential for control of bacteria and insects.
Sloping land is not a problem for EMU.
Leave as much natural vegetation as possible for shade.
Fencing can be chain link, hog wire, 2-inch by 4-inch non-climb wire, game fencing or even cattle panels with wire on the outside. Many EMU ranchers use 5', & prefer a 6' fence. Emus jump chest high on a 6' fence. Healthy EMUs can and will get out of a 4' fence.
Do not use barbed wire fence, even a few strands to "finish off" the height! EMU tend to rub against the fence and this will tear up their hides, hurt them and decrease the value of the leather in slaughter birds.
The fence should not have any areas where the bird could stick its head or foot through to get caught. Chicks can be fenced in using chicken wire.
There are many options for you to consider when choosing shelter for your birds. Chicks under 3 months of age require more protection from the elements than older birds. Given the choice, after they hit the 3-month mark, most emus would prefer to sleep outside under a tree, next to a hay bale or along the fence than "inside" even a 2-sided structure unless the weather is very cold.
Use pole barns and put out straw bales in the winter for wind blocks. In the spring these are used as mulch. Round bales are used in the grow-out pens as wind blocks. Some use plastic "huts"/igloo type shelters, lean-tos, pole barns, or tunnel type shelters.
Chicks under 3 months need more shelter during winter months. We use a chick barn with 5'x10' pens leading out to 80' runs. During the day, if the weather is not too cold, the chicks have access to the outside, close them up inside at night. Do not put more than 10 chicks in a pen. People have learned the hard way that if we do, one dies. They huddle together under the heat lamps and one will inevitably smother.
100 % Emu Oil
Emu oil is 100% pure and refined in a edible oil refinery, carrying the AEA Fully Refined Emu Oil meeting or exceeding International trade rules for fully refined emu oil.
Ultra Emu Oil has been proven to increase the anti-inflammatory activity by 45%.
Emu oil processed through a patent pending process which removes anti-inflammatory inhibitors has shown to reduce swelling more effectively than unprocessed emu oil. This finding has moved Ultra Emu Oil into a new category for cosmetic and pharmaceutical applications.
It is hypoallergenic, non pore clogging, contains anti-inflammatory properties to reduce inflammation and swelling of joints; pain of minor cuts, bites and scratches; a natural moisturizer of dry skin, and is able to penetrate several layers of the skin, thus improving the overall health of your pet. Emu oil contains several essential fatty acids including Omega 3 and Omega 6. These essential fatty acids are vital to a healthy diet. Most pet food on the market today has filler products that do not contain these essential fatty acids and, if anything they can produce skin allergies.
The Purple Rub, a FDA approved formulation, for the use on arthritis, sore joints and muscles.
30% Emu oil
FDA Approved Formulation
Purple Rub is an amazing new pain relief cream excellent for sore muscles, achy joints, sprains and strains, and day-to-day discomforts from sports, chores and all activities. Purple Rub has an enjoyable cooling sensation when applied to the skin with a pleasant, light scent of menthol.
Purple Rub contains no chemical ingredients. It is an all-natural formulation that also contains no polymers that can clog the skin's pores. The fact that Purple Rub contains 30% emu oil gives it a high transdermal efficiency factor for carrying active ingredients deep into the third layer of the derma. Purple Rub's ability to travel deep into the skin provides you with maximum healing benefits and relief from aches and pains.
Because Purple Rub is an all-natural product it has no adverse side effects and does not cause the skin irritations sometimes associated with other rubs due to their chemical ingredients, polymers and thickeners. Most topical creams available today do contain chemical agents that block your pores inhibiting the active ingredients from performing at 100% efficiency, thus decreasing healing activity. Many topical pain relief products today contain Glucosamine and Chondroitin. Although these ingredients are excellent for joint and connective tissue health when taken orally, due to their large molecular structure they cannot be absorbed through the skin and become useless in topical applications. Glucosamine, Chondroitin and MSM are most beneficial to the body when taken orally rather than applied to the skin.
Products to correct skin blemishes and redness AR Crème is made with all natural ingredients and considered an "Over the Counter" product for treating ACNE by the FDA.
AR Crème will clear your skin and help keep it clear of new acne blemishes with daily maintenance. You need only a small amount to do the job. Some people will need to use the cream only twice a week to maintain their skin after the first week of treatment. The results will vary from one skin type to another. We have found that some people experience clearing in about a week, others may take longer.
Another interesting fact about AR Crème is how it is made. Unlike commercial skin preparations AR Crème is made fresh in very small batches. The scientists who formulated this product exclusively for us hold several patents on skin care formulas that are used successfully worldwide.
Active Ingredient: 9% Sulfur- Acne Medication due to FDA regulations for OTC products, the above inactive ingredients are listed in alphabetical order, not by volume priority.
Essential Fatty Acids for optimum health. Has shown in research to lower cholesterol in lab tests.
This all-natural dietary supplement is an excellent source of Omega 3 and Omega 6 essential fatty acids that are required for maintaining optimum health. The body requires these two essential fats, but has difficulty acquiring necessary levels through normal diet. Scientific studies have shown that saturated fat tends to increase cholesterol levels in most people. Essential fatty acids can help balance excess quantities of these saturated fats.. Emu-Gel Caps, taken daily as a dietary supplement, can provide you with these essential fatty acids.
Whole eggs that have been emptied, cleaned and sanitized. Perfect for craft ideas or display definitely cheaper by the dozen.
Engraved Emu Egg Art
The Engraved Emu Eggs, Filigree Stype Emu Egg nitelights, Decorated Emu Eggs - excellent gifts for those who appreciate fine gifts. The work is done with a high speed engraver, thus each egg done, while it may be of the same subject, will be different to each buyer. Prices are a guide as most of these are sold and are shown only to represent the amount of time in preparation of the egg and the time and talent of the engraving.
Emu Meat Products
USDA inspected emu meat that is a great tasting, low fat, low cholesterol red meat similar in taste to beef. A few slices in the skillet, flipped on the grill, or served with cheese and crackers on a party tray, these summer sausages are great - no fat added. Excellent for snacks, campouts, hunting/fishing/backpacking trips.
Facial care products to moisturize and protect the face. There is nothing on the market today that can rival this unique, all-natural moisturizer. With just one jar of this indulgent formulation you will notice an amazing contrast in your skin‘s tone and texture. Super-Rich Moisturizer will not clog your pores, it stimulates new cell growth, exfoliates dead cells, and protects against free radicals. This fusion of perfectly balanced herbal extracts, plant oils, natural ingredients and an emu oil base allows for the rejuvenation of damaged skin. When Super-Rich Moisturizer was used twice daily volunteers described their skin as "smoothed out", "more flexible", "awake", and "younger looking". It‘s never too soon or too late to start the battle against aging and wrinkles.
Emu meat is pulpy and has 98 % fatty acid with low cholesterol. It contain creating & phosphocreatin and useful for eating. Emu meat is dark red in colors and has 5.5 pH values. The taste of Emu meat is delicious as its thigh muscles is an excellent alternative of beef as per tastes texture. Emu meat has high protein content & less calories & sodium. It contains more vitamin C as compare to other meat but it has 4 times less calories as compare to beef. Low fat beef accepts most seasoning meat respond well to sweet marinades made with honey, soya sauce, ginger, lemon juice & garlic.
Following are the constituents of Emu meat:
• Proteins : 8.4 gms
• Fats : 4.7 gms
• Saturated Fats : 25 %
• Cholesterol : 87 mg
• Iron : 5.0 mg
• Calories : 164 kcal
• Copper : 0.24 mg
• Sodium : 65 mg
• Magnesium : 28.7 mg
• Manganese : 0.030 mg
• Phosphorous : 269 mg
• Potassium : 375 mg
• Selenium : 44 mcg
• Zinc : 4.6 mg
• Folic acid : 9.0 mcg
• Vitamin B12 : 8.5 mcg
• Thiamin : 0.32 mg
• Niasin : 8.9 mg
• Riboflavin : 0.55 mg
We are engaged in offering soft and beautiful doubled quelled Emu Feathers that find application in fashion, art & craft industries. These feathers are largely used for making pads, dusters, masks and car cleaning brushes. Moreover, these are also used for designing dresses, hats, and household decorative items.
The Emu Feathers is exclusively used for making variety of decorative items like hats, dresses, car cleaning brush and household decorative items. Near about 400 gm to 600 gm feathers can be procured from an Emu bird. These soft and beautiful double quelled feathers are widely preferred in fashion, art & craft industries.
Products with emu oil for your hair thus controlling dry flaky skin conditions. A special cleansing formula containing emu oil that softens adds body and will leave your hair luxurious. Gentle cleansing action and pleasing aroma apply to wet hair and lather; rinse; repeat.
Skin Care Products moisturizes and softens the skin, lightly scented and deep penetrating for dry and chapped skin. Great for those working hands. A small amount covers a large area. Does not wear right off nor wash right out. Made with deep-penetrating pure all natural emu oil, which naturally moisturizes and softens the skin.. Has a pleasing light scent.
Rated Plant capacity = 500.00 PAIRS/day
= 180000.00 PAIRS/annum
EMU BIRDS FARMING
No. of working days = 30 days/month
= 360 days/annum
No. of shifts = 3 per day
One shift = 8 hours
365 DAY IN YEAR
BREEDING & MEAT PRODUCTION
Currency - Rs.
LAND & BUILDING Cost Rs. 539.6 Lakh
PLANT & MACHINERY
1. Feed Crusher
3. Meat Processing Equipments Manual Type
4. Oil Processing Equipment
6. Other Misc. Equipment like fencing, etc.
7. Erection & Installation TOTAL Rs. 44.4 Lakh
1. LAND & BUILDING Rs. 539.6 Lakh
2. PLANT & MACHINERY Rs. 44.4 Lakh
3. OTHER FIXED ASSETS Rs. 114 Lakh
TOTAL Rs. 698 Lakh
WORKING CAPITAL REQUIREMENT/MONTH
1. Feed 45 MT
2. Medicine & Vaccine
3. Cleaning & Sanitation Materials
4. Packing Material 500 ml pp barrel
5. Labels, gum, tape & consumables TOTAL Rs. 10.52 Lakh
TOTAL WORKING CAPITAL/MONTH
1. RAW MATERIAL Rs. 10.52 Lakh
2. SALARY & WAGES Rs. 3.97 Lakh
3. UTILITIES & OVERHEADS Rs. 5.95 Lakh
TOTAL Rs. 20.44 Lakh
COST OF PROJECT
TOTAL FIXED CAPITAL Rs. 698 Lakh
MARGIN MONEY Rs. 15.33 Lakh
TOTAL Rs. 713.33 Lakh
TOTAL CAPITAL INVESTMENT
TOTAL FIXED CAPITAL Rs. 698 Lakh
TOTAL WORKING CAPITAL FOR 3 MONTHS Rs. 61.33 Lakh
TOTAL Rs. 759.33 Lakh
TURN OVER/ANNUM = Rs. 670 Lakh
PROFIT SALES RATIO = 46.25%
RATE OF RETURN = 40.80%
BREAK EVEN POINT (B.E.P) = 34.40%