Handbook on Organic Waste for Biological Treatment, Liquid Manure into a Solid, Tomato Waste Water Treatment, Oxalic Acid from Jute Stick, Cotton Processing Waste, Fish Waste, Agro-Industrial Wastes, Bioconversion of Pretreated Wheat Straw and Sunflower Stalks to Ethanol, Agricultural Waste Treatment, Waste of Dehydrated Onion, Beef-Cattle Manure Slurry, Meat Meal and Algae for Calves, Wastes from Large Piggeries, Pig Waste, Oxytetracycline, Methane from Cattle Waste ( ) ( Best Seller ) ( ) ( ) ( )
Author Dr. Himadri Panda ISBN 9789381039885
Code ENI310 Format Paperback
Price: Rs 1675   1675 US$ 51   51
Pages: 504 Published 2013
Publisher Niir Project Consultancy Services
Usually Ships within 5 days

Handbook on Organic Waste for Biological Treatment, Liquid Manure into a Solid, Tomato Waste Water Treatment, Oxalic Acid from Jute Stick, Cotton Processing Waste, Fish Waste, Agro-Industrial Wastes, Bioconversion of Pretreated Wheat Straw and Sunflower Stalks to Ethanol, Agricultural Waste Treatment, Waste of Dehydrated Onion, Beef-Cattle Manure Slurry, Meat Meal and Algae for Calves, Wastes from Large Piggeries, Pig Waste, Oxytetracycline, Methane from Cattle Waste

(Also Known as The Complete Book on Biological Waste Treatment and their Utilization)


Biological Treatment is the recycling of humus, nutrients and/or energy from biological waste by means of aerobic (composting) or anaerobic (digesting) processing. Biological treatment is an important and integral part of any wastewater treatment plant that treats wastewater from either municipality or industry having soluble organic impurities or a mix of the two types of wastewater sources. Biological wastewater treatment is an important and integral step of wastewater treatment system and it treats wastewater coming from either residential buildings or industries etc. It is often called as Secondary Treatment process which is used to remove any contaminants that left over after primary treatment. 

Organic waste is material that is biodegradable and comes from either a plant or animal. Organic waste is usually broken down by other organisms over time and may also be referred to as wet waste. Most of the time, it's made up of vegetable and fruit debris, paper, bones and human waste which quickly disintegrate. Wastewater treatment is a process used to convert wastewater, which is water no longer needed or suitable for its most recent use, into an effluent that can be either returned to the water cycle with minimal environmental issues or reused.  

Expenditure on water and wastewater infrastructure in India is set to increase by 83% over the next five years, hitting an annual run rate of $16 billion by 2020. The utility market is set to top $14 billion within five years, while annual spending in the industrial sector will approach $2 billion. Spending on water supply will grow from $5.56 billion to $9.4 billion over the next five years.

It will be a standard reference book for professionals, entrepreneurs, those studying and researching in this important area. 

1. Organic Waste for Biological Treatment

Introduction, Physiological basis for Hazardous Organic Compound Degradation, Anaerobic Versus Aerobic Transformations, Examples of Hazardous Waste Amenable to Biological Treatment, Petroleum Components, Beta Oxidation, Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Halogenated Compounds, Halogenated Alkanes and Alkanoic Acids, Halogenated Aromatic and Polycydic Aromatic Compounds, Biodegradation by Mixed Populations, Conclusions

2. Organic Waste Forms and Treatment Strategies

Overview Of Biological Remediation And Waste Treatment Processes, In Situ Treatment, Bioreactor Designs, Examples of Biological Treatment Processes, Treatment of Liquid Wastes, In Situ Treatment for the Remediation of Surface and Groundwater, Bioreactor Treatment of Contaminated Water, Treatment off Solids, In Situ Treatment for the Remediation of Contaminated Soils, Soil Composting and Land Treatment, Bioreactors for the Treatment of Solids, Treatment of Gases, A Summary

3. Transformation of Liquid Manure into a Solid

Possible Processes for Manufacturing Solids from Wet Manure, Methodology of the Selected Process and Design of Plant, Tests of the Plant, Producing the mixture for composting, Producing the pellers, Composting, Drying, Qualities of the Product, Mechanical stability, Odour, Pathogen destruction, Fertiliser, Evaluation of the Process

4. Tomato Waste Water Treatment

Materials and Methods, Experimental cycle, Experimental apparatus, Results, Discussion, Cost Analysis, Conclusions

5. Oxalic Acid From Jute Stick

Methods , Alkali fusion, Nitric acid oxidation, Results and Discussion , Alkali fusion process, Nitric acid oxidation process, Effect of reaction time, Effect of temperature, Effect of catalyst concentration, Effect of nitric acid concentration, Nitric acid oxidation, Conclusions

6. Digestion of Cotton Processing Waste

Methods , Substrate, Analytical methods, Batch fermentation, Bench-scale studies, Experimental plant studies, Gas analysis, Results and Discussion

7. Properties of Sorghum Stalk

Nomenclature, Methods , Selection of materials, Harvesting schedule, Sample preparation, Measurement of physical properties, Strength characteristics of sorghum stalk, Compression strength, Tensile strength, Shear strength, Results and Discussion, Overall and internodal lengths, Moisture distribution, Solid density of stalk, Compressive strength, Tensile strength, Shear strength

8. Fermentation of Fish Waste

Methods, Fish, Sample preparation, Inoculum, Analytical methods, Microbiological examination, Statistical analysis, Experiment 1 , Experiment 2, Experiment 3, Experiment 4, Experiment 5, Results and Discussion

9. Agro-Industrial Wastes

Methods, Results and Discussion

10. Bioconversion of Pretreated Wheat Straw and Sunflower Stalks to Ethanol

Methods, Substrates, Enzyme, Substrate hydrolysis, Analytical methods, Ethanol assay, Ethanol production, Results and Discussion, Pretreatment of wheat straw, Pretreatment of sunflower stalks, Yeast fermentation

11. Modelling of Agricultural Waste Treatments

Chemical Reactor Theory, Microbial Kinetics, Model Implementation, Extension of the Previous Model to Digestion

12. Utilization of Waste of Dehydrated Onion

Methods, Isolation of Yeasts, Maintenance of strains, Preparation of onion juice from waste products of the dehydrated onion industry , Fermentation media, Tests of C and N sources, etc., Onion juice media, Analytical methods, Results and Discussion, Production of fodder yeast in a laboratory medium, Production of fodder yeast in an onion juice medium

13. Palm Oil Mill Effluent Disposal on Land

Methods and Results, Infiltration tests, Small-scale trials of the general effects of application of sludge (POMS) to land Trial1, Application to give Specfic Benefits to Land, Mulching effect (Trial 3), Restoring rintailings (Trial 4), Commercially Practical Methods and Optimum Input Rates for Application to Oil Palms, Preliminary trials, Long-term experiments 
(Trial 7), Discussion

14. Studies on Beef-Cattle Manure Slurry

Model Development, Materials, Methods , Measurement of rheological properties, Apparatus and procedure, Results and Discussion, Temperature and total solids effect on limiting viscosity, 0, Temperature and TS effect on K", Summary and Conclusions

15. Meat Meal and Algae for Calves

Methods , Results and Discussion, Performance of calves, Nutritive value of the ration

16. Manures and Sewage Sludges for Algal Growth

Materials and Methods, Collection and treatment of samples of sludge and manure, Analysis of the wastes, Preparation of media for cultivation of algae, Analysis of properties of waste extracts, Cultivation of algae in various media, Analysis of properties of waste-grown algae, Results, Properties of the wastes, Properties of the waste extracts, Growth rates of algae in various waste extracts, Oven-dried weight of harvested algae, Chlorophyll content of harvested algae, Heavy metal content of harvested algae, Discussion

17. Management and Treatment of Wastes from Large Piggeries

Typical Production Plant Layout and Sewerage, Wastewater Characteristics, Agricultural Applicability of Wastewaters, Wastewater Treatment for Stream Disposal, Efficiency of Wastewater Treatment, Primary treatment, Secondary treatment, Tertiary treatment, Economics of Treatment and Conclusions

18. Tower Digestion of Pig Waste

Methods, Equipment, Seed sludge, Pig manure, Tower operation, Analytical methods, Flocculant testing, Experimental design, Results and Discussion , Tower design changes, Flocculant testing, Tower performance, Flocculant effectiveness in the tower, Prospects for scale-up

19. Nutritive Value of Poultry Waste

Methods, Results and Discussion

20. Digestion of Rabbit and Pig Waste

Methods, Experimental design, Digesters, Substrates, Experimental procedure, Analytical methods, Results and Discussion , Energy production, Rabbit wastes, Mixed substrates: Pig manure and rabbit wastes, Pollution Control, Rabbit wastes, Discussion

21. Chemical Composition of Palm Oil Mill Effluent

Methods, Sampling, Fractionation procedure, Assays, Results and Discussion , Pome, Clarification sludge, Conclusions

22. Humic Substances from Composed Barks

Methods, Organic fertilizers, Chemical analysis, Extraction of humic matter, Sephadex gel filtration, Results and Discussion, Organic carbon content, Extracting efficiencies of reagents, Influence of extracting solutions, Time of extraction and sample-to-solvent ratio, Number of extractions, Sample particle size

23. Humic Substances From Decomposing Bark

Methods, Raw materials, Chemical analysis, Humic materials, Results and Discussion, Spruce bark, Spruce bark plus hen manure (20%)

24. Particle Size and Tomato Waste Digestion

Experimental Procedures, Results and Discussion

25. Humic Acids on Hydrolysis of Potato Protein

Methods , Materials, Analysis, Experimental procedures, Results, Discussion

26. Effects of Composts on Wheat Yields

Materials and Methods, Results and Discussion, Composition of composts, Experiment 1. Evaluation of composts on an equal nitrogen basis, Experiment 2. Evaluation of composts when added at a flat rate of 5 t/ha in addition to NPK fertilizers

27. Production of Oxytetracycline

Methods, Maintenance of Streptomyces rimosus 12907, Vegetative medium, Fermentation medium, Production oj oxytetracycline in afermenter (1200 litre), Determination oj amino acids present in fermented mash, Anti-microbial spectrum of oxytetracycline present in the dry mash, Results and Discussion

28. Use of Manure in Fish Farming

Keeping Livestock in the Vicinity of Fish Ponds, Applying Manures to Fish Ponds, Adding Manures to Feeds, Economic Comparison of Feeding and Manuring, Modes of Action of Manure, Direct Consumption of Manure, Manure as a Fertiliser for Autotrophic Production

29. Bacteria in Swine Waste

Materials and Methods, Analytical techniques, Results , Identification, Effect of waste concentration, Effect of pH, Effect of sulfide concentration, Protein production and nutrient uptake, Discussion , Growth characterization, Protein production and treatment capacity, Integration with algal systems

30. Poultry Waste Water as Broiler Feeds

Results and Discussion

31. Utilization of Indian Wastes in Livestock Feeds

Prominence of Salseed Meal, Similarity of Oak Kernels and, Salseed Meal, Oak Kernels in Poultry Mashes, Oak Kernels in Cattle Rations, Importance of a Negative Control in Experimental Designs, Rationing of Animals on the Minimum Adequate Requirement

32. Methane from Cattle Waste

Methods , Herd characteristics, Fermenter substrate, Fermenters, Experimental, Results, Discussion , Methane yield, Temperature effect

33. Treatment of Milking Parlour Wastewater

Methods, Pilot-scale reactor system description, Time allocation and operation of each phase of reactor, Analyses, Results and Discussion

34. Indicators of Pig Slurry Odours

Materials and Methods, Chemical analysis, Odour offensiveness test, Raw slurries of excreta, Treated slurries, Results and Discussion, Non-specific characteristics, Specific odourants, Prediction of odour offensiveness from chemical and biochemical characteristics, Conclusions

35. Pig Liquid Manure

Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion

36. UASB Treatment of Wastes

Introduction, Materials and Methods , Sampling and analysis, Seed sludge, Wastewater characteristics, The 30 m3 semi-technical experimental, pilot plant, RESULTS, Start up and operation, Loading rates and treatment efficiency, Sludge wash out, COD balance and sludge increment, Sludge retention and total methanogenic activity, Discussion, The performance of the reactor at an intermittent feeding, Performance at process temperatures of 20 °C and 30 °C, Sludge retention and sludge wash out, The rate of hydrolysis in the reactor

37. Digestion of Poultry Litter

Methods, Digester feedstock, Digester construction, Digester operation, Analytical methods, Data handling, Solids digestion, Results, Daily fed digesters, Batch digestion, Discussion, Daily fed digesters, Litter composition, Ammonium-N levels, Gas composition and biogas yields, Kinetic model, Batch digestion

38. Beef-Cattle Manure Slurries

Material, Methods, Apparatus, Computational procedure, Modified Reynolds Number, Results, Comparing capillary and rotational viscometer results, The f=NRe correlation for cattle manure slurries, Summary and Conclusions



NIIR PROJECT CONSULTANCY SERVICES (NPCS) is a reliable name in the industrial world for offering integrated technical consultancy services. NPCS is manned by engineers, planners, specialists, financial experts, economic analysts and design specialists with extensive experience in the related industries.

Our various services are: Detailed Project Report,  Business Plan for Manufacturing Plant, Start-up Ideas, Business Ideas for Entrepreneurs, Start up Business Opportunities, entrepreneurship projects, Successful Business Plan, Industry Trends, Market Research, Manufacturing Process, Machinery, Raw Materials, project report, Cost and Revenue, Pre-feasibility study for Profitable Manufacturing Business, Project Identification, Project Feasibility and Market Study, Identification of Profitable Industrial Project Opportunities, Business Opportunities, Investment Opportunities for Most Profitable Business in India, Manufacturing Business Ideas, Preparation of Project Profile, Pre-Investment and Pre-Feasibility Study, Market Research Study, Preparation of Techno-Economic Feasibility Report, Identification and Section of Plant, Process, Equipment, General Guidance, Startup Help, Technical and Commercial Counseling for setting up new industrial project and Most Profitable Small Scale Business.

NPCS also publishes varies process technology, technical, reference, self employment and startup books, directory, business and industry database, bankable detailed project report, market research report on various industries, small scale industry and profit making business. Besides being used by manufacturers, industrialists and entrepreneurs, our publications are also used by professionals including project engineers, information services bureau, consultants and project consultancy firms as one of the input in their research.

Our Detailed Project report aims at providing all the critical data required by any entrepreneur vying to venture into Project. While expanding a current business or while venturing into new business, entrepreneurs are often faced with the dilemma of zeroing in on a suitable product/line.


And before diversifying/venturing into any product, wish to study the following aspects of the identified product:

• Good Present/Future Demand
• Export-Import Market Potential
• Raw Material & Manpower Availability
• Project Costs and Payback Period

We at NPCS, through our reliable expertise in the project consultancy and market research field, Provides exhaustive information about the project, which satisfies all the above mentioned requirements and has high growth potential in the markets. And through our report we aim to help you make sound and informed business decision.


The report contains all the data which will help an entrepreneur find answers to questions like:

• Why I should invest in this project?
• What will drive the growth of the product?
• What are the costs involved?
• What will be the market potential?

The report first focuses on enhancing the basic knowledge of the entrepreneur about the main product, by elucidating details like product definition, its uses and applications, industry segmentation as well as an overall overview of the industry sector in India. The report then helps an entrepreneur identify the target customer group of its product. It further helps in making sound investment decision by listing and then elaborating on factors that will contribute to the growth of product consumption in India and also talks about the foreign trade of the product along with the list of top importing and top exporting countries. Report includes graphical representation and forecasts of key data discussed in the above mentioned segment. It further explicates the growth potential of the product.

The report includes other market data like key players in the Industry segment along with their contact information and recent developments. It includes crucial information like raw material requirements, list of machinery and manufacturing process for the plant. Core project financials like plant capacity, costs involved in setting up of project, working capital requirements, projected revenue and profit are further listed in the report.

Reasons for buying the report:

• This report helps you to identify a profitable project for investing or diversifying into by throwing light to crucial areas like industry size, demand of the product and reasons for investing in the product.

• This report provides vital information on the product like its definition, characteristics and segmentation.

• This report helps you market and place the product correctly by identifying the target customer group of the product.

• This report helps you understand the viability of the project by disclosing details like raw materials required, manufacturing process, project costs and snapshot of other project financials.

• The report provides forecasts of key parameters which helps to anticipate the industry performance and make sound business decision.


Our Approach:

• Our research reports broadly cover Indian markets, present analysis, outlook and forecast.

• The market forecasts are developed on the basis of secondary research and are cross-validated through interactions with the industry players. 

• We use reliable sources of information and databases.  And information from such sources is processed by us and included in the report.


Our Market Survey cum Detailed Techno Economic Feasibility Report Contains following information:



Ø  Introduction

·         Project Introduction

·         Project Objective and Strategy

·         Concise History of the Product

·         Properties

·         BIS (Bureau of Indian Standards) Provision & Specification

·         Uses & Applications


Ø  Market Study and Assessment

·         Current Indian Market Scenario

·         Present Market Demand and Supply

·         Estimated Future Market Demand and Forecast

·         Statistics of Import & Export

·         Names & Addresses of Existing Units (Present Players)

·         Market Opportunity


Ø  Raw Material

·         List of Raw Materials

·         Properties of Raw Materials

·         Prescribed Quality of Raw Materials

·         List of Suppliers and Manufacturers


Ø  Personnel (Manpower) Requirements

·         Requirement of Staff & Labor (Skilled and Unskilled) Managerial, Technical, Office Staff and Marketing Personnel


Ø  Plant and Machinery

·         List of Plant & Machinery

·         Miscellaneous Items

·         Appliances & Equipments

·         Laboratory Equipments & Accessories

·         Electrification

·         Electric Load & Water

·         Maintenance Cost

·         Sources of Plant & Machinery (Suppliers and Manufacturers)


Ø  Manufacturing Process and Formulations

·         Detailed Process of Manufacture with Formulation

·         Packaging Required

·         Process Flow Sheet Diagram


Ø  Infrastructure and Utilities

·         Project Location

·         Requirement of Land Area

·         Rates of the Land

·         Built Up Area

·         Construction Schedule

·         Plant Layout and Requirement of Utilities


Project at a Glance

Along with financial details as under:


  •     Assumptions for Profitability workings

  •    Plant Economics

  •    Production Schedule

  •    Land & Building

            Factory Land & Building

            Site Development Expenses

  •    Plant & Machinery

             Indigenous Machineries

            Other Machineries (Miscellaneous, Laboratory etc.)

  •    Other Fixed Assets

            Furniture & Fixtures

            Pre-operative and Preliminary Expenses

            Technical Knowhow

            Provision of Contingencies

  •   Working Capital Requirement Per Month

             Raw Material

            Packing Material

            Lab & ETP Chemical Cost

           Consumable Store

  •   Overheads Required Per Month And Per Annum

         Utilities & Overheads (Power, Water and Fuel Expenses etc.)

             Royalty and Other Charges

            Selling and Distribution Expenses

  •    Salary and Wages

  •    Turnover Per Annum

  •   Share Capital

            Equity Capital

            Preference Share Capital


  •    Annexure 1:: Cost of Project and Means of Finance

  •    Annexure 2::  Profitability and Net Cash Accruals


                Expenses/Cost of Products/Services/Items

                Gross Profit

                Financial Charges     

                Total Cost of Sales

                Net Profit After Taxes

                Net Cash Accruals

  •   Annexure 3 :: Assessment of Working Capital requirements

                Current Assets

                Gross Working. Capital

                Current Liabilities

                Net Working Capital

                Working Note for Calculation of Work-in-process

  •    Annexure 4 :: Sources and Disposition of Funds

  •    Annexure 5 :: Projected Balance Sheets

                ROI (Average of Fixed Assets)

                RONW (Average of Share Capital)

                ROI (Average of Total Assets)

  •    Annexure 6 :: Profitability ratios


                Earnings Per Share (EPS)


             Debt Equity Ratio

        Annexure 7   :: Break-Even Analysis

                Variable Cost & Expenses

                Semi-Var./Semi-Fixed Exp.

                Profit Volume Ratio (PVR)

                Fixed Expenses / Cost 


  •   Annexure 8 to 11:: Sensitivity Analysis-Price/Volume

            Resultant N.P.B.T

            Resultant D.S.C.R

   Resultant PV Ratio

   Resultant DER

  Resultant ROI

          Resultant BEP

  •    Annexure 12 :: Shareholding Pattern and Stake Status

        Equity Capital

        Preference Share Capital

  •   Annexure 13 :: Quantitative Details-Output/Sales/Stocks

        Determined Capacity P.A of Products/Services

        Achievable Efficiency/Yield % of Products/Services/Items 

        Net Usable Load/Capacity of Products/Services/Items   

       Expected Sales/ Revenue/ Income of Products/ Services/ Items   

  •    Annexure 14 :: Product wise domestic Sales Realisation

  •    Annexure 15 :: Total Raw Material Cost

  •    Annexure 16 :: Raw Material Cost per unit

  •    Annexure 17 :: Total Lab & ETP Chemical Cost

  •    Annexure 18  :: Consumables, Store etc.,

  •    Annexure 19  :: Packing Material Cost

  •    Annexure 20  :: Packing Material Cost Per Unit

  •    Annexure 21 :: Employees Expenses

  •    Annexure 22 :: Fuel Expenses

  •    Annexure 23 :: Power/Electricity Expenses

  •    Annexure 24 :: Royalty & Other Charges

  •    Annexure 25 :: Repairs & Maintenance Exp.

  •    Annexure 26 :: Other Mfg. Expenses

  •    Annexure 27 :: Administration Expenses

  •    Annexure 28 :: Selling Expenses

  •    Annexure 29 :: Depreciation Charges – as per Books (Total)

  •   Annexure 30   :: Depreciation Charges – as per Books (P & M)

  •   Annexure 31   :: Depreciation Charges - As per IT Act WDV (Total)

  •   Annexure 32   :: Depreciation Charges - As per IT Act WDV (P & M)

  •   Annexure 33   :: Interest and Repayment - Term Loans

  •   Annexure 34   :: Tax on Profits

  •   Annexure 35   ::Projected Pay-Back Period And IRR