Activated carbon, also called activated charcoal, activated coal, or carbo activatus, is a form of carbon processed to be riddled with small, low-volume pores that increase the surface area available for adsorption or chemical reactions. Activated is sometimes substituted with active. Activated Carbon is a unique material because of the way it is filled with â€œholesâ€ (voids, spaces, sites, pores,) whatever the size of molecules. Activated carbon is a non-graphitic form of carbon, which could be produced by activation of any carbonaceous material such as coconut shells, bamboo, wood chips, sawdust, coal, lignite, paddy husk etc. The process of activation is carried out in two stages. The raw material is first carbonized and then activated either by chemicals or by steam to derive the highly porous structure. Shell-based activated carbon is extensively used in the process of refining and bleaching of vegetable oils and chemical solutions, water purification, recovery of solvents, recovery of gold, in gas masks for protection against toxic gases, in filters for providing adequate protection against war gases/nuclear fall outs, etc. A wide variety of activated carbon products are available exhibiting markedly different characteristics depending upon the raw material and activation of technique used in their production. Activated carbon has been used to purify different products since Roman times. Carbon treatment is primarily based on a naturally occurring phenomenon called adsorption, in which molecules of a liquid or gas are trapped by either an external or internal surface of a solid. The phenomenon is somewhat similar to iron filings being held by a magnet. Activated carbon has a very high internal surface area and is thus an ideal material for adsorption. For Purification of liquids, the powdered form of activated carbon is added to the liquid to be purified and the mixture is agitated and finally filtered. Granulated activated carbons are used for purification of gases or liquids and are used in a vertical carbon packed column. The global activated carbon industry is estimated to be around 1.1 million metric ton. Demand for virgin activated carbon is expected to rise by around 10% annually through 2014, worldwide. The U.S is the largest market, which will also pace global growth based on anticipated new federal regulations mandating mercury removal at coal-fired power plants. The domestic market for activated carbon is fast expanding with rapid growth of several end user industries. The demand from the vegetable oil industry â€“ the largest consumer of activated carbon is 24,000 tones. The capacity utilization ratio is reported to around 85%. Thus, due to demand it is a good project for entrepreneurs to invest. Few Indian Major Players are as under â€¢ Indo German Carbons Ltd. â€¢ Ion Exchange (India) Ltd. â€¢ Triton Laboratories Ltd.