Production and Formulation of Fish and Shrimp (Prawn) Feed. Commercial Aquaculture Feed Manufacturing Business
Food is the main element for living of all animal. Like other animals fish also needs sufficient and nutritious fish feed for proper growth and survival. Maximum fish production is not possible without nutritious feed. The ingredients of well-balanced nutritious feed for fish are protein, carbohydrate, fat, vitamins, minerals and water. The feed like moss or aquatic insects which produce naturally in the pond is not sufficient for fish.
Aquafeed, also known as the fish feed, is a commercially produced food item for various aquatic species such as fish, crustaceans, and mollusks. Aquafeed is extensively used in the aquaculture sector. Fish cultivated on farms and feeding on pests found on crops can also be categorized under the aquafeed market segment.
Aqua feed is food formulated specifically for fishes, which is commercially manufactured via numerous industrial procedures. Aqua feed is primarily available as pellets, which contain important ingredients that provide nutrition to fish. As per the fish species and size to be fed, these pellets are available in many sizes. Further, the properties of pellets can be easily changed so that they sink to the bottom of fish tanks or float on the surface of the water. The nutrient contents of the feed can be controlled and this has benefitted the global aqua feed market in the recent past. Also, there has been a growth in the farming aquatic species such as crustaceans, mollusks, and fish.
With the globally increasing demand for fish and fish-based products, the compound feed demand in the aquatic animal food industry is also expected to increase. The growth is particularly high in emerging countries, such as China, India, and Brazil, owing to the increasing income levels due to expanding the middle class and increasing demand for seafood in these countries. The Asia-Pacific market though, accounts for a significant share in the overall market, is relatively unexplored, owing to the low level of organizing in the industry.
Andhra Pradesh accounts for 22% of India’s total commercial aquafeed consumption followed by West Bengal; however, the penetration of commercial aquafeed is still at 10% for finfish category and a little higher for shellfish category in Andhra Pradesh. This makes the state an attractive investment destination for aquafeed manufacturers.
From a land of traditional aquafeeding comprising rice/wheat bran, groundnut cake, and other agro products, India is emerging as a significant producer of commercial aquafeed. The thriving Indian aquaculture industry is the biggest advantage for aquafeed manufacturers. However, as majority of farmers feeding the aquatic species with traditional feeds owing to easy availability and lower prices, the transition towards commercial aquafeed will definitely take time.
With the growing awareness among farmers regarding benefits of feeding the aquacultured species with commercial aquafeed, the popularity of commercial aquafeed is trickling down to various parts of the country. Further, the growing demand for fish in both the national and international markets is propelling fish cultivators in India to inculcate commercial feeding practices, so that the end product is healthy and nutritional.
The global aqua feed market is segmented on the basis of geography and end-users. By end-users, the global aqua feed market is classified into crustaceans, carp, catfish, salmon, mollusks, tilapia, and others such as milkfish, eels, and trout. In 2012, by end-user, the highest demand for aqua feed was from the carps segment, accounting for 25% of the global aqua feed market. Carps have the highest demand in the retail industry whereas crustaceans have the highest demand in the food and the pharmaceutical industries. The rising demand for aqua feed from end-user segments such as mollusks and salmons is expected to propel the global aqua feed market in the near future.
In terms of end-user, the global aqua feed market has classified into carp, crustaceans, salmon, mollusks, catfish, tilapia, and others. Carp stood as the leading end-use segment and accounting for 25% of the global aqua feed market. The carp and crustaceans segments are expected to display the fastest growth as they can withstand harsh environmental conditions. Mollusks segment accounted for the second largest share of the overall market and is expected to display above average growth rate in the near future. This is mainly due to the increasing consumer awareness about the health benefits of mollusks.
Shrimp feed is produced in order to meet the nutritional requirements of farmed shrimps. It helps in maintaining the required levels of essential amino acids, vitamins, minerals, fatty acids and other important nutrients. Some of the common ingredients used in shrimp feed include fish and squid meal, lecithin, fish oil, cereal flour and other essential and propriety additives. The use of good quality feed helps in improving the shrimp production, profits, and minimizing the environmental pollution generated from shrimp farming.
Shrimp feeds have crude protein levels ranging from 32-38% and fat levels of 5-6%. Shrimp Feed production was approximately 600,000 tons, and fish feed production was 650,000 tons. If all the smaller feed mills were included in this survey, the total feed production in 2014 would have been more than 1.5 million tons. The Indian shrimp feed market reached a production volume of 872,700 Tons in 2017.
One of the primary factors catalyzing the growth of the Indian shrimp feed market is the massive marine wealth in India that sustains the development of the aquaculture industry.
Although shrimp farming is fully dependent on formulated feeds, freshwater finfish farming is still in the process of transitioning to use of pelleted feeds, from use of raw agricultural by-products, farm-made feeds and organic fertilizers. High value coastal carnivorous fin fish continues to be produced via a combination of trash fish and formulated feeds, both imported and produced locally.
Recently, Indian, aqua feed sector is exploring the opportunity to utilize abundantly available spent residues, dried distillery grains with soluble as a potential ingredient in fish and shrimp feeds.
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