Synthetic rubies (also known as created, cultured, or lab-grown rubies) are created through an artificial process that usually involves high temperature and pressure. The popularity of rubies led scientists to create synthetic rubies in laboratories. Synthetic rubies contain almost the exact same chemical composition and physical properties as natural rubies, but are sold around the world for a fraction of the price of natural rubies. Synthetic rubies often appear brighter and more vivid than natural rubies.
Sapphire is a precious gemstone, a variety of the mineral corundum, consisting of aluminium oxide (α-Al2O3) with trace amounts of elements such as iron, titanium, chromium, copper, or magnesium. Sapphire is usually heat treated to intensify the blue color, as well as remove inclusions to increase clarity. It is standard industry practice to heat treat Sapphire gemstones, and most Sapphires used as gemstones have been heat treated. Sapphire with a natural, unheated color is much more valuable than the heat treated material, and gemstones of good quality can be extremely costly.
Synthetic sapphire is evolving as a major industrial material due to its mechanical, optical, structural, thermal and chemical properties. Also, the availability of cheap synthetic sapphire is driving the use of this material in many industries. Synthetic sapphire is gaining increasing demand for production of windows owing to its extraordinary scratch-resistant properties and high-transparency to the wavelength of light.