In dilute solutions, a detergent is a surfactant or a combination of surfactants with cleaning properties. These are usually alkyl benzene sulfonates, a class of compounds that are similar to soap but are more soluble in hard water because the polar sulfonate (of detergents) is less likely to bind to calcium and other ions present in hard water than the polar carboxylate (of soap). Synthetic detergents have grown in popularity around the world. The tremendous and rapid growth of the international petrochemical industry has aided their rapid development. Consumers' reaction to the switch from traditional hard soaps to synthetic detergent was swift and irreversible. As a result, synthetic detergent is now used in the majority of developed and developing countries around the world. Certain other ingredients, such as builders, synergies, fillers, and brighteners, were added to the detergent powders to improve detergency.
Detergent powder is widely used in households, commercial establishments, hotel and garment industries, and many other areas of society. There are detergents with a high price, a medium price, and a low price. Different types of raw materials are used in the detergent manufacturing industry. This consumer product is in high demand. This output is carried out by both well-known structured and unorganized private sectors. The technology used in the production of high-priced detergent powder has evolved in recent years. However, the enzymatic detergent manufacturing process is not commercially feasible for producing low-cost detergent. India has technology that has been proven to work. The object is contaminated by the atmosphere. Appropriate emission control equipment must be installed.
Alkyl benzene sulfonates, for example, are popular anionic detergents. These anions have a lipophilic alkyl benzene component and a hydrophilic sulfonate portion. There are two types of branched alkyl groups: those with branched alkyl groups and those with linear alkyl groups. Cationic detergents have a hydrophilic portion similar to anionic detergents, but instead of an anionic sulfonate group, cationic surfactants have quaternary ammonium as the polar end. The core of ammonium sulphate is positively charged. These are used in both domestic and industrial settings to clean garments, utensils, and other objects. It's widely used in the clothing and laundry industries. Detergent makes up about 95% of total surfactants; some of the most popular applications for washing powder include:-
• Hand Soaps and Shampoo.
• Cleaning and degreasing of metals.
• Cleaning of glass and containers.
• Washing and treatment of food.
• Cleaning of painted surfaces.
• Cleaning of painted walls, roofs etc.
Detergents, as a component of the overall FMCG industry, account for nearly 12% of total demand for all FMCG goods, which is estimated to be in excess of Rs. 530 billion. Fabric brightening agents, anti-deposition agents, stain removers, and bleachers are all made with detergents, which are chemically known as alfa olefin sulphonates (AOS). Linear Alkyl Benzene (LAB), a petrochemical, is a major ingredient in detergent production, while caustic soda, an inorganic chemical, is a major ingredient in soap production.
Detergents come in powder, bar form, and liquid form. Bars account for less than half of the industry, while powders account for more than a third. Liquids account for 12% of total market share. Hindustan Lever (now Hindustan Unilever - HUL) dominates the bar segment, with its brands Rin, Wheel, 555, Shakti, and OK accounting for more than 40% of the market. Surf Excel from HUL and Ariel from Proctor & Gamble dominate the super-premium segment, which accounts for around 10% of the total detergents market (P&G). Together, they control about 75% of the industry, with the remainder coming from companies like Henkel SPIC. Nirma from Nirma Soaps and Wheel from HUL are the major brands in the sub premium market, with smaller presences from brands such as Trilo, Hipolin, Tide, Key, Chek, and others. HUL is the industry leader in India for detergents. Nirma is the second largest participant, with a 19 percent total market share. Nirma is more prevalent in the Northwest Indian states of Gujarat, Rajasthan, Punjab, and Haryana. In Gujarat, Nirma has the largest market share of about 40%. In the mass market, such as toilet soaps, it has the largest market share. As a whole there is a good scope for new entrepreneur to invest in this business.
Few Indian Major Players
· Godrej Consumer Products Ltd.
· Henkel Spic India Ltd.
· Hindustan Unilever Ltd.
· Hipolin Ltd.
· Jyothy Consumer Products Ltd.
· Kanpur Detergents & Chemicals Pvt. Ltd.