Mineral: Project Opportunities in Rajasthan
A mineral is a naturally occurring solid chemical substance formed through biogeochemical processes, having characteristic chemical composition, highly ordered atomic structure, and specific physical properties. India is one of the world's most naturally endowed lands. India is home to numerous minerals which benefit the country economically. The minerals produced in India constitute one-quarter of the world's most popular mineral resources.
Rajasthan is a mineral rich state and blessed with 79 varieties of minerals, of which 58 are being commercially exploited. State has virtual monopoly in the production of major minerals like Wollastonite, Lead-Zinc, Calcite, Gypsum, Rock phosphate, Ochre, Silver and minor minerals like Marble, Sandstone and Serpentine (Green Marble) etc., which contribute almost 90% to 100% of national production.
There are abundant reserves of Lignite (4986 million tonnes), Crude oil (480 million tonnes), Heavy oil (14.60 million tonnes), Bitumen (33.20 million tonnes), Lean gas (11790 million cubic meters) and High quality gas (3000 million cubic meters) further adds to its mineral strength. The State contributes significantly in the national production of Lead and Zinc (100%) and Copper (47.76%).
There are large copper mines at Khetri and zinc mines at Dariba. Makrana near Jodhpur is site where white marble is mined. Rajasthan State Mines and Minerals limited (RSMML) is one of the significant Government undertaking of Rajasthan that is involved in the mining and marketing of non metallic minerals such as Limestone, Rock Phosphate, Lignite and Gypsum.
NATIONAL MINERAL POLICY, 2008
Keeping in view the long term national goals and perspective for exploitation of minerals, Government of India has revised its earlier National Mineral Policy, 1993 and came up with a new National Mineral Policy 2008. Basic goals of NMP 2008 are-
1. Regional and detailed exploration using state of the art techniques in time bound manner.
2. Zero waste mining
For achieving the above goals, important changes envisaged are:
• Creation of improved regulatory environment to make it more conducive to investment and technology flows
• Transparency in allocation of concessions
• Preference for value addition
• Development of proper inventory of resources and reserves
• Enforcement of mining plans for adoption of proper mining methods and optimum utilization of minerals
• Data filing requirements will be rigorously monitored
• Old disused mining sites will be used for plantation or for other useful purposes.
• Mining infrastructure will be upgraded through PPP initiatives
• State PSU involved in mining sector will be modernized
• State Directorate will be strengthened to enable it to regulate mining in a proper way and to check illegal mining
• There will be arms length distance between State agencies that mine and those that regulate
• Use of machinery and equipment which improve the efficiency,
• Productivity and economics of mining operation, safety and health of workers and others will be encouraged.
Automotives: Project Opportunities in Rajasthan
The automotive industry in India is one of the largest in the world and one of the fastest growing globally. India's passenger car and commercial vehicle manufacturing industry is the sixth largest in the world, with an annual production of more than 3.7 million units in 2010. As of 2010, India is home to 40 million passenger vehicles. More than 3.7 million automotive vehicles were produced in India in 2010 (an increase of 33.9%), making the country the second fastest growing automobile market in the world.
The Automobile sector has seen a rapid growth in recent past, it has made Rajasthan the major Auto Production hub of the country. Due to close proximity to a major auto production, Alwar, Bhiwadi and Jaipur districts runs nearly 100 units. In Bhiwadi, a special Auto & Engineering Zone has also been developed in the Pathredi Industrial Area and another special zone is being planned. To address availability of trained manpower, particularly for Shop-floor Operations, a Tool Room & Training Centre is being planned over 10 acres here.
The Auto Policy has spelt out the direction of growth for the auto sector in India and addresses most concerns of the automobile sector, including-
• Promotion of R&D in the automotive sector to ensure continuous technology upgradation, building better designing capacities to remain competitive.
• Impetus to Alternative Fuel Vehicles through appropriate long term fiscal structure to facilitate their acceptance.
• Emphasis on low emission fuel auto technologies and availability of appropriate auto fuels and
• encouragement to construction of safer bus/truck bodies - subjecting unorganised sector also to 16% excise duty on body building activity as in case of OEMs
Cement: Project Opportunities in Rajasthan
The cement industry presents one of the most energy-intensive sectors within the Indian economy and is therefore of particular interest in the context of both local and global environmental discussions. Increases in productivity through the adoption of more efficient and cleaner technologies in the manufacturing sector will be effective in merging economic, environmental, and social development objectives.
Rajasthan is the largest producer of cement in India. With a capacity of over 13 million tons per annum, Rajasthan accounts for over 15% of India’s cement production. The cement industry in Rajasthan is witnessing significant growth in recent years. Fresh capacity aggregating over 10 MMTPA is under various stages of implementation. With the domestic demand for cement expected to grow at 8-9 per cent annually.
The key strength of Rajasthan cement industry is the presence of large limestone reserves, estimated to be over 2.5 billion tones. MS grade limestone of Jaisalmer district is supplied to various steel plants of the country.
The government of India has set ambitious plans to increase the production of cement in the country, and to attain the target the government has made huge investments in the sector. The Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion, which falls under the central Ministry of Commerce and Industry, is the agency that is responsible for the development of the cement industry in the country. The agency is actively involved in keeping track of the performance of cement companies in the country and provides assistance and suitable incentives when required by the company. The department is also involved in framing and administering the industrial policy for foreign direct investments in the sector. Apart from formulating policies, the department also promotes the industry to attract new foreign investments in the sector.
Livestock: Project Opportunities in Rajasthan
Livestock sector plays a critical role in the welfare of India's rural population. It contributes nine percent to Gross Domestic Product and employs eight percent of the labour force. This sector is emerging as an important growth leverage of the Indian economy. As a component of agricultural sector, its share in gross domestic product has been rising gradually, while that of crop sector has been on the decline. In recent years, livestock output has grown at a rate of about 5 percent a year, higher than the growth in agricultural sector.
Animal Husbandry is a major economic activity of the rural peoples, especially in the arid and semi-arid regions of the Rajasthan. Development of livestock sector has a significant beneficial impact in generating employment and reducing poverty in rural areas. Livestock contributes a large portion of draft power for agriculture, with approximately half the cattle population and 25 percent of the buffalo population being used for cultivation.
About 10% of G.D.P of the State is contributed by Livestock sector alone. This sector has great potential for rural self-employment at the lowest possible investment per unit. Therefore, livestock development is a critical pathway to rural prosperity.
As per the livestock census 2007, there are 579.00 lacs livestock (which include Cattle, buffalo, Sheep, Goat, Pig, Camel, Horse and donkey) and more than 50.12 lacs poultry in the State. Rajasthan has about 7% of country’s cattle population and contributes over 10% of total milk production, 30% of mutton and 40% wool produced in the country.
Rajasthan livestock policy has a pro-poor, pro-women and pro-youth focus for attaining enhanced growth to generate more house hold income, increased production and induction of new technologies to meet future demands of livestock products. The Policy envisages strengthening of the animal husbandry sector in order to enhance production, productivity, livelihood of the poor and self-reliance of underprivileged sections of the rural society through sustainable development of the sector. The vision encompasses:
• Holistic growth of livestock sector in terms of production, product processing, marketing, quality & services, so that income and employment opportunities from livestock are enhanced with resultant food and nutritional security of the large masses;
• The dairy sector aims to procure and market 50 lac kg of milk per day by the year 2020.
• Conservation and improvement of the indigenous germ plasm of livestock and poultry in order to protect bio-diversity of the State and make their holdings sustainable;
• Modernization of the sector through technological, institutional and policy interventions with due consideration to the social, cultural and traditional ethos;
• Empowerment of Eastern Social Welfare Society (ESWS) families, especially women, by improving their household income through improved animal husbandry.
Agriculture: Project Opportunities in Rajasthan
Agriculture Sector of Indian Economy is one of the most significant part of India. Agriculture is the only means of living for almost two-thirds of the employed class in India. About 65% of Indian population depends directly on agriculture and it accounts for around 22% of GDP. Agriculture derives its importance from the fact that it has vital supply and demand links with the manufacturing sector. The agriculture sector of India has occupied almost 43 percent of India's geographical area. Agriculture is still the only largest contributor to India's GDP even after a decline in the same in the agriculture share of India
The Economy of the state of Rajasthan mainly depends on the agricultural sector for it accounts for almost 22.5% of the state's economy. In the state of Rajasthan, the total area that has been cultivated is around 20 million hectares and 20% of the area out of this is irrigated.
Rajasthan is India's largest producer of oilseeds (rapeseed & mustard), seed spices (coriander, cumin and fenugreek) and coarse cereals. The State is major producer of soybean, food grains, gram, groundnut and pulses. Rajasthan's vibrant agriculture sector offers various opportunities for the successful establishment of vibrant and potentially profitable agro-processing units.
In India, agricultural trade policy is a part of a larger food and agriculture policy regime that seeks to maintain food self-sufficiency while providing income support to the agricultural sector and poor consumers. The Government of India (GOI) uses a variety of policy instruments in attempting to achieve these goals, including:
• Domestic subsidies to inputs, outputs, transportation, storage, and consumption to reduce producer costs and consumer prices.
• Border measures such as subsidies, tariffs, quotas, and non-tariff measures to protect domestic producers from import competition, manage domestic price levels, and guarantee domestic supply.
The National Policy on Agriculture seeks to actualise the vast untapped growth potential of Indian agriculture, strengthen rural infrastructure to support faster agricultural development, promote value addition, accelerate the growth of agro business, create employment in rural areas, secure a fair standard of living for the farmers and agricultural workers and their families, discourage migration to urban areas and face the challenges arising out of economic liberalization and globalisation. Over the next two decades, it aims to attain:
• A growth rate in excess of 4 per cent per annum in the agriculture sector;
• Growth that is based on efficient use of resources and conserves our soil, water and bio-diversity;
• Growth with equity, i.e., growth which is widespread across regions and farmers;
• Growth that is demand driven and caters to domestic markets and maximises benefits from exports of agricultural products in the face of the challenges arising from economic liberalization and globalisation;
• Growth that is sustainable technologically, environmentally and economically.
The policy seeks to promote technically sound, economically viable, environmentally non-degrading, and socially acceptable use of country’s natural resources - land, water and genetic endowment to promote sustainable development of agriculture.
Textiles: Project Opportunities in Rajasthan
The Indian textile industry is one of the largest industries in the world. The textile industry in India is the largest provider of employment after agriculture. This industry is one of the earliest industries of India to come into being; it is presently the second biggest industry in the world after China. Over the years, this industry has proved to be the provider of the basic requirements of the people. The industry holds a vital place in the Indian economy as it makes a contribution of 14 % to the industrial production of the country and at the same time sums up 4% of the total GDP of India. Along with contributing to the Indian economic scenario in terms of employment, involvement in the industrial production, foreign revenues the textile industry of India also contributes to the global textile economy. It contributes to the global textile fibre and yarn production.
Textile is an important industry for Rajasthan, representing over 20 per cent of the investment made in the state. Rajasthan contributes over 7.5 per cent of Indian production of cotton and blended yarn (235,000 tons in 2002-03) and over 5 per cent of fabrics (60 million sq meters).
There is major availability of cotton and wool which contributes to Rajasthan’s textile industry. Production of cotton in Rajasthan has, however, declined from over 1.4 million bales in 1996- 97 (approx. 10 per cent of Indian production) to 0.7 million bales 2003-04. Wool production in Rajasthan has grown from 16 million kg in 1992-93 to around 20 million kg, currently representing over 40 per cent of Indian wool production.
The Ministry of Textiles in India has formulated numerous policies and schemes for the development of the textile industry in India. The government of India has been following a policy of promoting and encouraging the handloom sector through a number of programmes. Most of the schematic interventions of the government of India in the ninth and tenth plan period have been through the state agencies and co-operative societies in the handloom industries. Some of the major acts relating to textile industry include: Central Silk Board Act, 1948, The Textiles Committee Act, 1963, The Handlooms Act, 1985, Cotton Control Order, 1986, The Textile Undertakings Act, 1995 Government of India is earnestly trying to provide all the relevant facilities for the textile industry to utilize its full potential and achieve the target. The textile industry is presently experiencing an average annual growth rate of 9-10% and is expected to grow at a rate of 16% in value, which will eventually reach the target of US $ 115 billion by 2012. The clothing and apparel sector are expected to grow at a rate of 21 %t in value terms.
Tourism: Project Opportunities in Rajasthan
Tourism in India is the largest service industry, with a contribution of 6.23% to the national GDP and 8.78% of the total employment in India. The tourism industry in India is substantial and vibrant, and the country is fast becoming a major global destination. India’s travel and tourism industry is one of them most profitable industries in the country, and also credited with contributing a substantial amount of foreign exchange. Indian Tourism offers a potpourri of different cultures, traditions, festivals, and places of interest.
Rajasthan is one of the most popular tourist destinations in India, for both domestic & international tourists. Rajasthan attracts tourist for its historical forts, palaces, art and culture. Every third foreign tourist visiting India also travel to Rajasthan as it is part of the Golden Triangle for tourists visiting India. Rajasthan Economy also depends to a very large extends on the tourism sector which accounts for almost 15% of the state's economy. The tourism sector in the state of Rajasthan has been flourishing due to the fact that the state is endowed with great natural beauty and has many palaces and forts all over the state that attracts tourists from India as well as abroad. This sector has given a major boost to the Economy in the state of Rajasthan.
In order to develop tourism in India in a systematic manner, position it as a major engine of economic growth and to harness its direct and multiplier effects for employment and poverty eradication in an environmentally sustainable manner, the National Tourism Policy was formulated in the year 2002. Broadly, the Policy attempts to:-
• Position tourism as a major engine of economic growth;
• Harness the direct and multiplier effects of tourism for employment generation, economic development and providing impetus to rural tourism;
• Focus on domestic tourism as a major driver of tourism growth.
• Position India as a global brand to take advantage of the burgeoning global travel trade and the vast untapped potential of India as a destination;
• Acknowledges the critical role of private sector with government working as a pro-active facilitator and catalyst;
• Create and develop integrated tourism circuits based on India’s unique civilization, heritage, and culture in partnership with States, private sector and other agencies; and ensure that the tourist to India gets physically invigorated, mentally rejuvenated, culturally enriched, spiritually elevated and feel India from within.
Waste management and recycling: Project Opportunities in Rajasthan
Rapid industrialization last few decades have led to the depletion of pollution of precious natural resources in India depletes and pollutes resources continuously. Further the rapid industrial developments have, also, led to the generation of huge quantities of hazardous wastes, which have further aggravated the environmental problems in the country by depleting and polluting natural resources. Therefore, rational and sustainable utilization of natural resources and its protection from toxic releases is vital for sustainable socio-economic development.
Hazardous waste management is a new concept for most of the Asian countries including India. The lack of technical and financial resources and the regulatory control for the management of hazardous wastes in the past had led to the unscientific disposal of hazardous wastes in India, which posed serious risks to human, animal and plant life.
Sikar is located in the North Eastern part of Rajasthan. The present population of the Town is approximately 2, 29 lakh. The quantity of solid waste generated in the town at present is 103 MT per day. The wastes generated from different sources are thrown on the roads or road sides by the generators. Only about 60-70% waste are collected by the urban local body (ULB). The ULB, in charge of solid waste collection, transportation and disposal, performs its duties in an unplanned and unscientific manner, consequently, the road sides are cluttered with wastes and since there is no identified place for treatment and disposal of wastes, the untreated wastes are disposed at any convenient place.
National policy on waste management is set out in the October 1998 policy statement on waste management- Changing our Ways. It outlines the Government's policy objectives in relation to waste management, and suggests some key issues and considerations that must be addressed to achieve these objectives. The policy is firmly grounded in an internationally recognised hierarchy of options, namely prevention, minimisation, reuse/recycling, and the environmentally sustainable disposal of waste which cannot be prevented or recovered.